• Reproductive output;
  • individuals;
  • population density;
  • phenotypic variation;
  • asymmetric competition

ABSTRACT. 1. The effects of population density on the reproductive output of individual female grasshoppers (Chorthippus brunneus Thunberg) and the relationships between reproductive output and component elements of each female's phenotype, were investigated.

2. Reproductive output was primarily determined by the rate of egg-pod production. Increased density led to significant reductions in the rate of egg-pod production and reproductive output.

3. Exoskeleton size (reflecting nymphal experience) was positively correlated with clutch size at both high and low densities, but condition (reflecting adult experience) showed no such correlation. At high density, exoskeleton size was more strongly correlated with the rate of egg-pod production and reproductive output than condition. It is concluded that the nymphal aspects of size are more important than the adult aspects.

4. At low density, females with small exoskeletons compensated for their smaller clutches by producing egg-pods at a faster rate. Thus, there was no overall relationship between reproductive output and any of the phenotypic characteristics.

5. The effects of competition were weakly asymmetric in high density populations. The weakness of the asymmetry suggests scramble-like interactions for resources. It is concluded that not only are the effects of competition influenced by individual differences, but also that competition may reveal differences that would not otherwise be apparent.