- 1A univoltine herbivorous ladybird beetle Epilachna niponica (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) shows a large variation in adult size within a population.
- 2Large adults had higher survival from emergence to the reproductive season, and the size-dependent adult survival was most apparent during hibernation. On the other hand, adult survival during pre-hibernation contributed little to size-dependent overall survival.
- 3Neither reproductive lifespan nor lifetime fecundity were a function of adult size, though large females produced larger size of egg batches.
- 4Size of adult beetles was significantly reduced by leaf damage to plants on which they grew up on larval stage. Since leaf herbivory increases through the season, late emerged adults that were subjected to food deterioration during the larval period were smaller than early-emerged individuals.