Non-morph specific predation of peppered moths (Biston betularia) by bats
Article first published online: 27 MAY 2008
© 2008 The Author Journal compilation © 2008 The Royal Entomological Society
Volume 33, Issue 5, pages 679–683, October 2008
How to Cite
MAJERUS, M. E. N. (2008), Non-morph specific predation of peppered moths (Biston betularia) by bats. Ecological Entomology, 33: 679–683. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2008.00987.x
- Issue published online: 3 SEP 2008
- Article first published online: 27 MAY 2008
- Accepted 12 December 2007First published online 27 May 2008
- Anti-Darwinian literature;
- Bernard Kettlewell;
- Biston betularia;
- evolution in action;
- industrial melanism;
- peppered moth;
- selective predation
Abstract 1. Industrial melanism in the peppered moth, Biston betularia, is one of the foremost examples of natural selection in action.
2. Differential bird predation was suggested as the main agent for the evolution of melanism in the peppered moth by Tutt in the 1890s, with empirical support being published by Kettlewell in the 1950s.
3. Some recent critiques that have attempted to undermine Kettlewell’s work have lacked objectivity, and have been answered previously.
4. One criticism that has not previously been addressed is that of the role of bat predation in the case.
5. The difficulty of using non-visual differential predation by bats to explain the increase and decrease in melanism in the peppered moth, correlated as it is to pollution levels, is outlined.
6. Predation experiments, in which moths of the typica and carbonaria forms of the peppered moth were released and observed at night, were used to determine whether bats differentially predate these forms.
7. Results of experiments at three sites showed no significant differences in the level of bat predation of the two forms of peppered moth.