Intra-floral resource partitioning between endemic and invasive flower visitors: consequences for pollinator effectiveness


Robert R. Junker, Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Ecology, University of Würzburg, Biozentrum, Am Hubland 97074, Würzburg, Germany. E-mail:


1. Sympatric flower visitor species often partition nectar and pollen and thus affect each other's foraging pattern. Consequently, their pollination service may also be influenced by the presence of other flower visiting species. Ants are solely interested in nectar and frequent flower visitors of some plant species but usually provide no pollination service. Obligate flower visitors such as bees depend on both nectar and pollen and are often more effective pollinators.

2. In Hawaii, we studied the complex interactions between flowers of the endemic tree Metrosideros polymorpha (Myrtaceae) and both, endemic and introduced flower-visiting insects. The former main-pollinators of M. polymorpha were birds, which, however, became rare. We evaluated the pollinator effectiveness of endemic and invasive bees and whether it is affected by the type of resource collected and the presence of ants on flowers.

3. Ants were dominant nectar-consumers that mostly depleted the nectar of visited inflorescences. Accordingly, the visitation frequency, duration, and consequently the pollinator effectiveness of nectar-foraging honeybees (Apis mellifera) strongly decreased on ant-visited flowers, whereas pollen-collecting bees remained largely unaffected by ants. Overall, endemic bees (Hylaeus spp.) were ineffective pollinators.

4. The average net effect of ants on pollination of M. polymorpha was neutral, corresponding to a similar fruit set of ant-visited and ant-free inflorescences.

5. Our results suggest that invasive social hymenopterans that often have negative impacts on the Hawaiian flora and fauna may occasionally provide neutral (ants) or even beneficial net effects (honeybees), especially in the absence of native birds.