Community-wide effects of below-ground rhizobia on above-ground arthropods
Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Ecological Entomology © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society
Volume 36, Issue 1, pages 43–51, February 2011
How to Cite
KATAYAMA, N., ZHANG, Z. Q. and OHGUSHI, T. (2011), Community-wide effects of below-ground rhizobia on above-ground arthropods. Ecological Entomology, 36: 43–51. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2010.01242.x
- Issue online: 7 JAN 2011
- Version of Record online: 15 NOV 2010
- Accepted 16 September 2010First published online 15 November 2010
- Above- and below-ground interactions;
- bottom-up effects;
- community structure;
- Glycine max;
1. Plants take nutrients for their growth and reproduction from not only soil but also symbiotic microbes in the rhizosphere, and therefore below-ground microbes may indirectly influence the above-ground arthropod community through changes in the quality and quantity of plants.
2. Rhizobia are root-nodulating bacteria that provide NH4+ to legume plants. We examined bottom-up effects of rhizobia on the community properties of the arthropods on host plants, using a root-nodulating soybean strain (R+) and a non-nodulating strain (R−) in a common garden.
3. R+ plants grew larger and produced a greater number of leaves than R− plants. We observed 28 species of herbivores and three taxonomic groups of predators on R+ and R− plants. The herbivorous species were classified into sap feeders (12 species) and chewers (16 species).
4. The species richness of overall herbivores, sap feeders, and chewers on R+ plants was greater than that on R− plants. Rhizobia positively affected the abundance of chewers.
5. The community composition of herbivores was significantly different between R− and R+ plants, although species diversity and evenness did not differ.
6. Rhizobia-induced bottom-up effects were transmitted to the third trophic level. The abundance, taxonomic richness, and diversity of the predators on R+ plants were greater but evenness was lower than those on R− plants. The community composition of predators was not affected by rhizobia.
7. These results indicate that the below-ground microbes initiated bottom-up effects on above-ground herbivores and predators through trophic levels.