1. The selection of an oviposition site by a phytophagous insect can depend on many factors, including the risk of predation. Many species avoid predators by laying eggs where enemies searching host plants are unlikely to find them.
2. Females of the Peruvian butterfly, Oleria onega Hewitson (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Danainae: Ithomiini) lay most of their eggs (76 ± 9%) off the host plant, Solanum mite Ruiz & Pav. These off-host eggs may be laid up to 0.5 m from the nearest host-plant individual, on twigs or leaf litter, as well as on living plants of species unsuitable for larval food.
3. Disappearance of eggs on and off the host plant was recorded by transferring eggs laid in captivity to known locations in the wild and recording rates of disappearance before the larvae emerged. After 2 days, eggs on the host were significantly more likely to have disappeared compared to eggs laid elsewhere.
4. We conclude that a high risk of predation is a likely trigger that caused O. onega to evolve a behaviour of laying eggs off its host plant.