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Supporting Information

Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article under the DOI reference:DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01345.x

Fig. S1. Seasonal temperature and rainfall during 2004–2008 at 1890 m elevation in the research system (Puerto de Navacerrada meteorological station: 40°46′50′′N, 04°00′37′′W; data obtained from http://www.tutiempo.net/clima/navacerrada/82150.htm). Mean temperature (°C) (triangles, solid line), and total rainfall (mm) (diamonds, dotted line) are shown for 3 month periods: winter (December, January, and February: DJF) small open symbols; spring (March, April, and May: MAM) large open symbols; summer (June, July, and August: JJA) large solid symbols; autumn (September, October, and November: SON) small solid symbols.

Fig. S2. Phylogeny used in phylogenetic generalised least squares (PGLS) regressions performed with COMPARE software.

Table S1. Annual sampled global mean dates and elevation ranges (km) of the species; and summary statistics for models of mean flight date against elevation (km). Global mean date is the average of the mean dates for all sites with two or more individuals of the species in the year.

Table S2. Correlation table of the variables included in the analyses. We used non-parametric Spearman&apos;s correlation coefficients to control for redundant variables. &ast;P < 0.05; &ast;&ast;P < 0.01; &ast;&ast;&ast;P < 0.001. (a) 2004 (n = 19species).

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