D.C.M. and D.S. conceived, designed, and executed this study and D.C.M. wrote the manuscript.
Environmental heterogeneity mediates a cross-ecosystem trophic cascade
Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012
© 2012 The Royal Entomological Society
Volume 38, Issue 1, pages 23–30, February 2013
How to Cite
MOON, D. C. and SILVA, D. (2013), Environmental heterogeneity mediates a cross-ecosystem trophic cascade. Ecological Entomology, 38: 23–30. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01398.x
- Issue online: 22 JAN 2013
- Version of Record online: 21 NOV 2012
- Accepted 14 September 2012
Additional Supporting Information may be found in the online version of this article under the DOI reference: DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2311.2012.01398.x
Figure S1. Mean (+ 1 SEM) number of odonates observed in each cage and control plot in 15 total minutes of observation time (5 min per plot in June, July and August) from (a) main study site and (b) site rarely visited by odonates, referred to as ‘non-odonate site’. A ‘0’ indicates that observations were made, but no odonates occurred in these plots.
Figure S2. Mean (+ 1 SEM) number of (a) Pissonotus quadripustulatus planthoppers and (b) Asphondylia borrichiae galls on 180 B. frutescens stems per plot from cage and control plots at the non-odonate site.
Figure S3. Mean (+ 1 SEM) number of (a) web-building spiders and (b) grasshoppers on 180 B. frutescens stems per plot from cage and control plots at non-odonate site.
Figure S4. Data from the host plant B. frutescens showing mean (+ 1 SEM) per plot of (a) percentage of leaves that had been chewed, (b) number of leaves per stem, (c) percentage of stems that were flowering, and (d) number of stems per 0.25 m × 0.25 m quadrat from cage and control plots at non-odonate site.
Table S1. Soil variables (nitrogen, salinity, and moisture) and plant variables (foliar nitrogen, stem density, and production of new stems) measured from 10 randomly selected plots in a monoculture of Borrichia frutescens that was not visited by odonate predators. Data are means ± 1SEM.
Table S2. Microclimate variables (temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, and light levels) recorded inside cages and in control plots between 10 and 11 am EDT in June. None of the variables were significantly different between the two groups (unpaired two-tailed t test, P > 0.200 in all cases). Data are means ± 1SEM.
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