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This paper presents the results of long-term monitoring of insecticide resistance in populations of agricultural pests in Russia. Over the last 45 years, resistance developments were recorded for 36 arthropod pest species in 11 agricultural crops and pastures in relation to nearly all commonly used plant protection products. Development of group, cross and multiple resistance has been revealed in populations of many economically important pests. Toxicological and phenotypical (for Colorado potato beetle) methods have been devised to monitor the development of pesticide resistance. Based on experience over the last century, systems aimed at preventing the development of pest resistance to insecticides and acaricides are elaborated. These systems are based on resistance monitoring and using plant protection measures which minimize the toxic pressure on agroecosystems.