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Abstract

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

Specific scope

The purpose of the EPPO Standard on Quercus and Castanea is to recommend to EPPO Member Governments the phytosanitary measures which they should use or require for Quercus and Castanea plants, and plant products moving in international trade, to prevent the introduction and spread of regulated pests. Certain of these recommendations are addressed to all EPPO Member Governments, others are addressed only to countries considered to face a certain level of risk from the introduction and spread of the regulated pests concerned. All these recommendations are derived:

  • • 
    from the EPPO Standards PM 1/2 (EPPO A1 and A2 lists)
  • • 
    from the former EPPO standard PM 2 (pest-specific phytosanitary measures) (which was withdrawn in 2006 by the Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations)
  • • 
    from Pest Risk Analysis
  • • 
    from the Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations
  • • 
    from the ISPM n°15 ‘Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade’.

Specific approval and amendment

First approved in 2010–09.


1. Plants and commodities concerned

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

This Standard relates to all plants of genera Quercus and Castanea. Requirements specific to these genera are given separately.

The Standard concerns the commodities that are regularly traded, i.e. wood, bark, plants for planting, cut branches. Wood packaging, although not a commodity per se, is also included. Plants for planting are considered in general at the genus level. Quercus and Castanea wood may be traded as pure or mixed consignments. Since the genus should be indicated on certificates, every genus present should be specified in the case of mixed consignments. Such consignments should satisfy all the requirements for every genus present.

Wood commodities

Wood– a commodity class for round wood, sawn wood, wood chips or dunnage, with or without bark (ISPM 5).

Wood packaging material– wood or wood products (excluding paper products) used in supporting, protecting or carrying a commodity (includes dunnage) (ISPM 5).

The scheme in Appendix 2 shows the relationship between the different types of wood commodities. The following forest products are not wood commodities but constitute separate commodity types.

Cut branches– part of the general commodity type ‘cut flowers and branches’ and including coppiced stems.

Isolated bark– bark which is no longer attached to wood. Isolated bark may contain pieces of wood with bark.

Plants for planting– this commodity type mainly includes young seedlings (1–5 years old, used for reforestation) and nursery plants. It also includes quite large trees (<20 years) for transplanting to gardens, amenity plantings or architectural plantings, and includes naturally or artificially dwarfed plants (bonsais). The risks of transporting regulated pests are different for trees of different ages (for example, scolytids and cerambycids rarely attack young trees (<7 years) in contrast to curculionids, which could develop in seedlings).

Other definitions

Bark – the layer of a woody trunk, branch or root outside the cambium (ISPM 5).

Bark-free wood – wood from which all bark, except ingrown bark around knots and bark pockets between rings of annual growth, has been removed (ISPM 5).

Debarked wood – wood that has been subjected to any process that results in the removal of bark (debarked wood is not necessarily bark-free wood) (ISPM 5).

Debarking – a process designed to remove a large majority of the bark, thereby producing debarked wood.

Heat treatment – a process in which a commodity is heated until the core temperature reached 56°C for 30 min according to an officially recognized technical specification.

2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

This standard relates to the EPPO A1 and A2 pests recognized as of primary importance for Quercus and Castanea (EPPO Standard PM 1/2) including pests, which EPPO recommends for regulation. The phytosanitary measures described in the standard are primarily aimed at preventing the introduction and spread of these specific pests in the EPPO region. Details on these pests can be found on the EPPO website (http://www.eppo.org), in Quarantine Pests for Europe (EPPO/CABI, 1997) or in the Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin for more recent additions to the lists.

2.1 Pests of Quercus and Castanea

Castanea
A1 pests Insects Anoplophora glabripennis Malacosoma americanum Malacosoma disstriaA2 pests Insects Aeolesthes sarta Anoplophora chinensis Dryocosmus kuriphilus Hesperophanes campestris Lymantria mathura Malacosoma parallela Popillia japonica Xylotrechus namanganensis Fungi Cryphonectria parasitica
Quercus
A1 pestsA2 pests
InsectsInsects
Anoplophora glabripennisAeolesthes sarta
Malacosoma americanumAnoplophora chinensis
Malacosoma disstriaHesperophanes campestris
Vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum:Lymantria mathura
Arrhenodes minutusMalacosoma parallela
Pseudopityophthorus minutissimusPopillia japonica
Pseudopityophthorus pruinosusXylotrechus namanganensis
Fungi Ceratocystis fagacearum Cronartium fusiforme Cronartium quercuumFungi1 Cryphonectria parasitica

2.2 Other pests

The above lists cover all known harmful organisms which could be introduced on Quercus and Castanea commodities and are recommended for regulation by EPPO.

They do not necessarily cover all regulated pests on commodities of Quercus and Castanea other than their main hosts or species related to the listed regulated pests (e.g. Cerambycidae, Curculionidae, Lasiocampidae, Scolytidae).

New emerging pest situations, based on PRA, may lead to addition of pests to the standard.

2.3 Soil-borne pests

Certain pests of EPPO A1 and A2 lists may be associated with consignments of Quercus and Castanea when soil or growing medium is attached.

The potato pests may be contaminating pests:

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus

Globodera pallida

Globodera rostochiensis

Synchytrium endobioticum

3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

Each pest recommended for regulation has been considered by the EPPO Working Party on Phytosanitary Regulations and pest-specific phytosanitary requirements were recommended (EPPO Standards PM2, withdrawn in 2006). These former pest-specific requirements have been analysed and their content reviewed and rearranged into recommended commodity-specific requirements for Quercus and Castanea.

The commodity-specific requirements also include general measures for polyphagous, contaminating and other exotic pests which may be associated with consignments of Quercus and Castanea.

In many places, the commodity-specific requirements refer to specific phytosanitary procedures. These are described in detail in separate EPPO Standards or in appendices to this standard.

Normally, it is recommended that the requirements fulfilled by the exporting countries are accepted by the importing country, on the basis of phytosanitary certification. However, in certain cases where the trade is new, there remains a degree of uncertainty about the adequacy of the measures, which can only be resolved by following appropriate transitional procedures for their application in practice. These procedures should be developed in the framework of transitional arrangements as described in Appendix 1. Cases where such special procedures may apply are specifically identified in this section, and the corresponding requirements are preceded by the phrasing: ‘subject, where appropriate, to special procedures under transitional arrangements’.

Regulation of Quercus and Castanea pests

A1 pests  All EPPO countries are recommended to regulate as quarantine pests the Quercus and Castanea pests in the EPPO A1 list (see Section 2).

A2 quarantine pests  For EPPO A2 pests recommended for regulation (see Section 2), EPPO countries where a given A2 pest does not occur, or where it is not widely distributed, are recommended to regulate it as a quarantine pest. If they do, they are recommended to make the requirements specified for this pest.

4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

4.1. General requirements for Quercus and Castanea

Plants for planting of Castanea and QuercusPC2 and, if appropriate, RC3
Plants for planting of Castanea and Quercus with roots, planted or intended for planting, grown in the open air originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Globodera pallida, Globodera rostochiensis, Synchytrium endobioticumPlace of production freedom for Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus, Globodera pallida, Globodera rostochiensis, Synchytrium endobioticum
Plants for planting of Castanea and Quercus with soil and growing medium attached or associatedGrown according to EPPO Standard PM 3/54
Plants for planting of Castanea and Quercus other than seeds and plants in tissue cultureDormant, clean (i.e. free from plant debris) and free from leaves, flowers and seeds AND Grown in nurseries AND Inspected prior to export and found free from pests of EPPO A1 and A2 lists, or subjected to appropriate treatment to eliminate such organisms
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis,Anoplophora glabripennis, Cryphonectria parasiticaHesperophanes campestris, Lymantria mathura,Malacosoma americanum, Malacosoma disstria,Malacosoma parallela,Popillia japonicaFree from: Aeolesthes sarta,Anoplophora chinensis,Anoplophora glabripennis,Cryphonectria parasitica,Hesperophanes campestris, Lymantria mathura,Malacosoma americanum,Malacosoma disstria, Malacosoma parallela,Popillia japonica,
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis, Hesperophanes campestrisPest-free area for: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis, Hesperophanes campestris,
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Lymantria mathura occursPest-free area for Lymantria mathura OR Grown in protected conditions
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Malacosoma americanum or Malacosoma disstria occursPest-free area for Malacosoma americanum and Malacosoma disstria OR Grown in protected conditions
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Malacosoma parallela occursPest-free area for Malacosoma parallela OR Grown in protected conditions
Plants for planting of Castanea and Quercus with growing medium originating in countries where Popillia japonica occursPest-free area for Popillia japonica OR Grown following EPPO Standard PM 3/54
Cut branches of Castanea and QuercusPC and, if appropriate, RC
Cut branches of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Cryphonectria parasitica, Malacosoma americanum, Malacosoma disstria, Malacosoma parallelaFree from: Cryphonectria parasitica, Malacosoma americanum Malacosoma disstria, Malacosoma parallela
Cut branches of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Malacosoma americanum, Malacosoma disstria or Malacosoma parallela occurPest-free area for Malacosoma americanum, Malacosoma disstria, and Malacosoma parallela OR Grown in protected conditions
Cut branches of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Cryphonectria parasitica occursPest-free area for Cryphonectria parasitica
Seeds of Castanea and QuercusPC and, if appropriate, RC
Seeds of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Cryphonectria parasitica occursPest-free area for Cryphonectria parasitica OR Appropriate disinfection
Wood of Castanea and QuercusPC and, if appropriate, RC
Wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis, Cryphonectria parasitica, Hesperophanes campestris, Lymantria mathura, Xylotrechus namanganensisFree from: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis, Cryphonectria parasitica, Hesperophanes campestris Lymantria mathura, Xylotrechus namanganensis
Non-squared wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis Xylotrechus namanganensisDebarking and heat-treatment according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8 OR Chemical pressure impregnation (to the extent that it meets heat treatment specifications) OR Pest-free area for Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Anoplophora glabripennis, Xylotrechus namanganensis
Non-squared wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Hesperophanes campestris occursDebarking AND Heat treatment according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8 OR Chemical pressure impregnation (to the extent that it meets heat treatment specifications) OR Pest-free area for Hesperophanes campestris
Non-squared wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Lymantria mathura occursPest-free area for Lymantria mathura OR Debarking OR Fumigation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/7 OR Heat treatment according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8
Non-squared wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Cryphonectria parasitica occursPest-free area for Cryphonectria parasitica OR Bark free AND Heat treatment according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8
Squared wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Xylotrechus namanganensisHeat-treated according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8 OR Chemical pressure impregnation (to the extent that it meets heat treatment specifications) OR Pest-free area for Aeolesthes sarta, Anoplophora chinensis, Xylotrechus namanganensis
Squared wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Hesperophanes campestris occursHeat-treated according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8 OR Chemical pressure impregnation (to the extent that it meets heat treatment specifications) OR Pest-free area for Hesperophanes campestris
Particle wood and waste wood of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Cryphonectria parasitica occursPest-free area for Cryphonectria parasitica OR Produced from wood which was debarked AND Heat treated
Packaging wood of Castanea and QuercusRequirements of ISPM 15
Isolated bark of Castanea and QuercusPC and, if appropriate, RC
Isolated bark of Castanea and Quercus originating in countries where Cryphonectria parasitica occursFree from Cryphonectria parasitica AND Pest-free area for Cryphonectria parasitica OR Fumigation4 OR Composted according to EPPO Standard PM 3/53 OR Heat treatment

4.2. Genus-specific requirements for Castanea and Quercus

Requirements for Castanea
Plants for planting of Castanea originating in countries where Dryocosmus kuriphilus occursPest free area for Dryocosmus kuriphilus
Cut branches (including coppiced stems) of Castanea originating in countries where Dryocosmus kuriphilus occursPest area for Dryocosmus kuriphilus
Requirements for Quercus
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Quercus originating in countries where any of the following pests occur: Arrhenodes minutus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme, Cronartium quercuum, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus, Pseudopityophthorus pruinosusFree from: Arrhenodes minutus, Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme, Cronartium quercuum, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus Pseudopityophthorus pruinosus
Plants for planting (except seeds), and cut branches, of Quercus originating in countries where Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum occurPest-free area for Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum OR Place of production and its immediate vicinity freedom (during the last growing season) for Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum and any of its following vectors occur: Arrhenodes minutus, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus, Pseudopityophthorus pruinosusPest-free area for Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Pest-free area for specified vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Quercus originating in countries where Carneocephala fulgida, Draeculocephala minerva, Graphocephala atropunctata or Homalodisca coagulata occurPest-free area for Carneocephala fulgida, Draeculocephala minerva, Graphocephala atropunctata and Homalodisca coagulata
Plants for planting (except seeds) of Quercus originating in countries where Cryphonectria parasitica occursPest-free area for Cryphonectria parasitica
Cut branches of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme or Cronartium quercuum occurFree from Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum
Cut branches of Quercus originating in countries where Cronartium fusiforme or Cronartium quercuum occurPest-free area for Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum OR Place of production and its immediate vicinity freedom (during the last growing season) for Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum
Cut branches of Quercus originating in countries where Carneocephala fulgida, Draeculocephala minerva, Graphocephala atropunctata or Homalodisca coagulata occurPest-free area for Carneocephala fulgida, Draeculocephala minerva, Graphocephala atropunctata and Homalodisca coagulata
Seeds of QuercusPC and, if appropriate, RC
Seeds of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum occursPest-free area for Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Hot water treatment of at least 42°C for at least 30 min
Wood of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme or Cronartium quercuum occurFree from Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum
Wood (except particle wood, chips, shavings, sawdust and waste wood) of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum and any of its following vectors occur: Arrhenodes minutus, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus, Pseudopityophthorus pruinosusPest-free area for Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Pest-free area for specified vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Bark free AND Heat treatment according to EPPO Standard PM 10/6 OR Treated with ionizing radiation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/8 OR Fumigation according to EPPO Standard PM 10/7
Particle wood and waste wood of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum and any of its following vectors occur: Arrhenodes minutus, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus, Pseudopityophthorus pruinosusPest-free area for Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Pest-free area for specified vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Produced from debarked wood AND Produced from heat treated wood OR Appropriate fumigation4 shipboard or in container prior to shipment with precautions to prevent reinfestation by specified vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum
Isolated bark of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme or Cronartium quercuum occurFree from Ceratocystis fagacearum, Cronartium fusiforme and Cronartium quercuum
Isolated bark of Quercus originating in countries where Ceratocystis fagacearum and any of its following vectors occur: Arrhenodes minutus, Pseudopityophthorus minutissimus, Pseudopityophthorus pruinosusPest-free area for Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Pest-free area for specified vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Appropriate fumigation4 against specified vectors of Ceratocystis fagacearum OR Heat treatment

5. List of associated standards

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

It is proposed that individual phytosanitary procedures would be maintained as separate EPPO Standards, but that they should be part of a package that will always accompany the forestry standard when approved.

The following standards are referred to.

EPPO Standards PM 3: Phytosanitary procedures

PM 3/29(1) General export inspection procedure for glasshouse and nursery enterprises

PM 3/51(1) Methyl bromide fumigation of wood to control insects

PM 3/54(1) Growing plants in growing medium prior to export

PM 3/60(1) Testing growing medium and plants in growing medium

EPPO Standards PM 10: Phytosanitary treatments

PM 10/6(1) Heat treatment of wood to control insects and wood-borne nematodes

PM 10/7(1) Methyl bromide fumigation of wood to control insects

PM 10/ 8(1) Disinfestation of wood with ionizing radiation

International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures

ISPM 4 Requirements for the establishment of pest free areas, 1996. FAO, Rome

ISPM 5 Glossary of phytosanitary terms, 2010. FAO, Rome

ISPM 10 Requirements for the establishment of pest free places of production and pest free production sites, 1999. FAO, Rome

ISPM 15 Guidelines for regulating wood packaging material in international trade, 2002. FAO, Rome

Footnotes
  • 1

    Phytophthora ramorum is not included in this standard because PRA has not been conducted yet and the pest is not included in the EPPO A2 List; the PRA for this pest is under preparation.

  • 2

    PC – phytosanitary certificate.

  • 3

    RC – re-export phytosanitary certificate.

  • 4

    Methyl bromide is known to deplete the ozone layer. alternative treatments that are more environmentally friendly should be encouraged

Appendices

  1. Top of page
  2. Abstract
  3. 1. Plants and commodities concerned
  4. 2. Regulated pests of Quercus and Castanea
  5. 3. Commodity-specific phytosanitary requirements for Quercus and Castanea
  6. 4. List of recommended phytosanitary measures
  7. 5. List of associated standards
  8. Appendices

Appendix 1 – Transitional arrangements: procedures for the application of phytosanitary requirements

Introduction

This appendix is concerned with the development of a programme for import of Quercus and Castanea commodities into an EPPO country from an area where currently no such trade exists. It is based on the concept of a ‘transitional arrangement’. This is a formal procedure designed to facilitate, under prescribed conditions, the import of a specified commodity. Intended to be temporary in nature, a transitional arrangement may be as simple or as complex as is necessary to address the phytosanitary risks. It provides time for the required phytosanitary measures to be validated and confidence to be built up between trading partners, with the aim of establishing permanent trading procedures. Under this system, the exporting country making the request should provide at the same time a ‘dossier’ containing appropriate information, as explained later in this section.

Necessity for transitional arrangements

In Europe, the import of Quercus and Castanea commodities has been strictly controlled. This is essentially due to the following:

  • • 
    inadequate understanding of some pest problems
  • • 
    severe impacts that introduced pests have inflicted on forestry
  • • 
    absence of direct control measures for many Quercus and Castanea pathogens
  • • 
    potential pathways for many forest pests provided by Quercus and Castanea commodities
  • • 
    inadequate knowledge of Quercus and Castanea production and of regulatory and administrative systems in potential exporting countries, making it difficult to determine whether potential imports will be free from quarantine pests.

The purpose of the transitional arrangement is to establish confidence between trading partners. On the exporting side, confidence is required to ensure that sufficient time is provided for a trade to be established and that the trade can take place without undue or unexpected interference. On the importing side, confidence is required to ensure that all phytosanitary risks have been addressed and phytosanitary measures applied, where justified. If there is only one defined pest of concern, the arrangement is limited to that one pest. However, if the concerns of the importing country relate to several pests, procedures may be correspondingly more complex. If too many pests are involved, transitional arrangements may not be possible. This may also apply to countries in which a number of poorly characterized species or strains occur and the risk is difficult to evaluate.

Outline of the development of a transitional arrangement

Where there is currently no trade in Quercus and Castanea commodities, it is recommended that, on the request of an exporting country, imports should be considered under the following procedure. The same procedure may apply to imports from countries either outside or within the EPPO region. The transitional arrangement forms part of a cooperative programme between national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) of exporting and importing countries to establish measures that minimize the risk of quarantine pests being transferred with imported Quercus and Castanea commodities. The programme is expected to proceed through the following three phases.

  • • 
    Phase 1– provision of detailed information by the exporting country of how the requirements set in this standard (EPPO Standard PM 8/3(1)) can be met. The importing country then undertakes information gathering, PRA and evaluation of the relevant capabilities of the NPPO and certification authority of the exporting country. If the risks can be identified and suitable phytosanitary measures can be proposed, an import protocol is developed based on procedures established in this standard.
  • • 
    Phase 2 – import of Quercus and Castanea consignments under special agreed export and entry management procedures, which includes entry designated by the NPPO of the importing country (usually a permit system).
  • • 
    Phase 3– review of phase 2 and establishment, if appropriate, of permanent regulations for import under Phytosanitary Certificates without specific permits.

The programme can stop at any point if phytosanitary risks cannot be adequately addressed.

General considerations applying to transitional arrangements

Operational capability  The NPPOs of both exporting and importing countries operating a transitional arrangement should have the operational capability to implement all relevant International Standards For Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs).

Transparency  EPPO should be notified of any request for a transitional arrangement. Countries developing transitional arrangements should provide information on them to EPPO, and to other countries on request. They should consider the risks to other countries arising from their transitional arrangements, and exchange information with other countries developing similar arrangements. The outcomes of each phase of the programme should be made available to EPPO and, on request, to all countries. The agreed protocol, including the entry system established in phase 2, should be published in an appropriate form (as required under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC)). Modifications to permanent regulations should be published in line with the standard practice of the NPPO concerned.

Consistency and technical justification  A transitional arrangement is a phytosanitary measure, and is accordingly subject to technical justification under the IPPC (Article VI/1b). This applies both to the necessity for the transitional arrangement as such, and to each of the measures specified within the arrangement. Throughout the process, the principles of transparency, necessity, equivalence and consistency should be applied. Phytosanitary procedures established under phases 2 and 3 of a transitional arrangement programme should be consistent with ISPMs and, in particular, the pest-specific and commodity-specific phytosanitary measures set out in this standard. Where procedures are required which are more stringent than is set down in such standards, the justification should be made available on request.

Equivalence and non-discrimination  If other exporting countries can demonstrate that they have a phytosanitary status the same as or comparable with that of countries for which transitional arrangements have been agreed, and that they apply identical or equivalent phytosanitary measures in pest management, they should expect, on request, to develop an equivalent programme based on the same or comparable special procedures.

Timing and review  Phases 1 and 2 of the transitional arrangement programme should be kept as short as possible, consistent with good phytosanitary practice. Phases 2 and 3 should be subject to regular review. Reviews should be cooperative, involving the NPPOs of both importing and exporting countries.

Parties concerned  The fundamental principle of the transitional arrangement programme is that it is a cooperative procedure. It is an agreement between NPPOs and their Governments, and may involve any number of interested parties. Where appropriate, the procedure should involve all sectors of the industry including traders, growers and other parties who may have an interest in the export or import procedures.

Administrative procedures for transitional arrangements  Administrative procedures, together with appropriate legal authority, should be established by exporting countries to facilitate transitional arrangements and to provide any relevant information required for their establishment. These administrative procedures may include:

  • • 
    an official contact point for all aspects of the request, including provision of information
  • • 
    a suitable structure to gather information to support the request and to provide further information at later stages, if requested by the NPPO of the importing country
  • • 
    authority to make contact and enter into agreements with the NPPOs of the importing countries to facilitate the establishment of a transitional arrangement
  • • 
    a facility to enable contact with trade, grower and other interests to contribute to the process and to be informed of decisions taken
  • • 
    facilities to publish information relating to requests and the details of any transitional arrangement established.

Equivalent administrative procedures should also be established by importing countries, in particular to facilitate the implementation of transitional arrangements (including, where necessary, derogation from prohibitions established in the laws or regulations of the importing country):

  •  an official contact point for receipt of requests
  •  an appropriate mechanism to analyse and process requests
  •  a PRA procedure which includes:
    •  reviewing the basis for the current legislation, including in particular the existing lists of quarantine pests and their associated PRAs and supporting information
    •  identifying possible areas where information is lacking
    •  establishing the necessity to seek information from the NPPO of the exporting country
  •  authority to make contact and enter into agreements with NPPOs of the exporting countries to facilitate the establishment of a transitional arrangement
  •  a facility to enable contact with trade, grower and other interests to contribute to the process and to be informed of decisions taken
  •  facilities to publish information relating to requests and the details of any transitional arrangement established.

Risk-analysis procedures should make all possible use of data already available, and in particular take account of the information and procedures established elsewhere in this standard and other appropriate international standards such as ISPM 11 on PRA for quarantine pests. The phytosanitary measures and other risk-management procedures proposed for the transitional arrangement should be based on those recommended in this standard. The administrative procedures should establish an indicative timetable for the transitional arrangement. For phase 1, this will depend on the extent and type of information required, the speed with which contact between interested parties can be made, and the time required for working procedures to be established (e.g. 12–18 months). Phase 2 (the special procedures) should provide sufficient time for growers and traders to establish production, transport and marketing arrangements, and for official services to test and validate phytosanitary measures (normally minimum of three, maximum of five years). Phase 3 is in two parts: review (e.g. 3–6 months) and, if appropriate, amendment of regulations (following standard legal procedures for the NPPO concerned).

Detailed programme for development of transitional arrangements
Phase 1: information gathering, analysis and establishing a protocol

Request  The exporting country making the request for a new trade in Quercus and Castanea commodities should at the same time provide a detailed assessment of the extent to which the requirements set out in this standard can be met. The dossier should in particular contain:

  • • 
    distribution and status in the exporting country of the pests listed in this standard, other Quercus and Castanea pests, and other pests regulated by the importing country which may contaminate Quercus and Castanea
  • • 
    the phytosanitary measures taken to reduce pest risks to a level judged to be acceptable by the NPPO (e.g. systems approach, see ISPM 14)
  • • 
    where the phytosanitary measure involves a pest-free area, a description of the system, including establishment and maintenance
  • • 
    where the phytosanitary measure involves a pest-free place of production, a description of the system
  • • 
    documentary evidence indicating the competence of staff involved in administration, inspection and laboratory testing (education, training and experience).

Pest risk analysis  The importing country should evaluate the extent to which the requirements set out in this standard can be met by the exporting country for the commodity. It should examine whether other pests should be subject to PRA and managed, by requesting additional information from the exporting country as appropriate. It may be necessary for personnel from the importing country to evaluate directly the relevant operational capabilities of the exporting country.

Identification of measures  This standard makes recommendations for pest-specific and general phytosanitary measures which should be applied to reduce risk to an acceptable level. The transitional arrangement may be used to validate the effectiveness of the measures. The measures may include the following:

  •  production measures such as:
    •  derivation from pathogen-free plants for planting
    •  production in a pest-free area or pest-free place of production (if relevant)
    •  pest management programme
    •  field inspection and/or testing
  •  postharvest or pre-export measures
    •  lot inspection and/or testing
    •  treatment such as debarking or heat treatment or application of plant protection products (if relevant)
  •  point of entry or post-entry measures:
    •  lot inspection and/or testing
    •  entry through designated points
    •  designated end-use
    •  processing or other treatment
    •  issue of permits to control entry
    •  notification to the NPPO of the importing country of non-compliance
  •  export of consignments, by the NPPO of the exporting country
  •  receipt of imports, by the designated recipient.

Assurance that pre-export measures can be applied  If the measures identified by the PRA include measures such as origin in a pest-free area, the NPPO of the importing country needs to obtain assurance from the NPPO of the exporting country that the measure can be applied effectively.

The NPPO of the exporting country should provide relevant information such as:

  • • 
    description of the procedures used
  • • 
    legislative measures which support the pest-free area or other measure
  • • 
    survey data
  • • 
    sample and laboratory data
  • • 
    administrative guidance or other instructions such as those for inspection personnel
  • • 
    scheme and/or registration documentation to participating growers, traders or organizations
  • • 
    audit and review.

In some circumstances, on-site audits by personnel of the NPPO of the importing country may be appropriate.

Outcome  Three possible outcomes are envisaged:

  • • 
    the risks are identified and appropriate measures can be applied effectively with the confidence of all parties –no special procedures required as imports may be permitted under normal phytosanitary certification (PC)
  • • 
    the risks are identified and phytosanitary measures can be proposed but their suitability and application requires validation –proceed with a special procedure
  • • 
    the risks are identified but no measures can be established or implemented which provide the required level of protection, or the risks cannot be adequately identified –imports cannot be permitted and the application is refused.
Establishing an import protocol

The phytosanitary measures which are identified should be assembled into an import protocol. The NPPO of the exporting country confirms that these are practicable and can be implemented. The inspection service of the NPPO of the importing country, in consultation with associated services such as Customs, should ensure that point of entry or post-entry inspection or other measures can be applied rapidly and effectively.

Phase 2: import under the special procedure

The import protocol should be published following the normal procedures of the NPPO of the importing country for other import regulations and notified in accordance with IPPC procedures. The NPPO of the exporting country should be informed through the normal procedures. Individual consignments will normally be moved under the control of either a general or specific permit procedure. This should follow the normal procedures of the NPPO of the importing country. It is the responsibility of the NPPO of the exporting country to ensure that all measures required prior to export are undertaken, including notification to the NPPO of the importing country and the issue of phytosanitary certificates. It is the responsibility of the NPPO of the importing country to ensure that all measures required at or after import are undertaken rapidly and efficiently. The effectiveness of the procedures should be reviewed at appropriate intervals (normally at least annually), and the results of these reviews should be available to other EPPO countries on request. In addition, the results of any checks or other inspections should be available on request to the other NPPO. If the NPPO of the exporting or importing countries detects instances of non-compliance, these should be reported to the other NPPOs immediately. The NPPO of the exporting country should immediately investigate the reason for non-compliance, take steps to ensure that there is no recurrence, and report the results to the other NPPOs. If instances of non-compliance are sufficiently serious and measures to avoid recurrence cannot be agreed sufficiently quickly, the NPPO of the importing country should suspend the transitional arrangement. The NPPOs should assess whether amendment of the import protocol and resumption of an amended transitional arrangement is possible. If not, the arrangement should be cancelled and a final review should be made.

Period of validity  The transitional arrangement should be of sufficient duration to ensure that the procedure can be properly established and monitored, and to enable ready participation of the trade (minimum of three years, up to five years, is recommended so that the arrangement does not become permanent).

Phase 3: final review and transition to normal established trading conditions

Review of the transitional arrangement  Towards the end of phase 2 or within an agreed period of its termination, the NPPO of the importing country, in consultation with the NPPO of the exporting country, should review all aspects of the transitional arrangement. In particular the review should consider:

  •  whether the volume of imports has been sufficient to test the system
  •  any instances of non-compliance
  •  the effectiveness of each of the phytosanitary measures applied under the agreed protocol
  •  the extent to which the special procedures have been successful in providing:
    •  an acceptable trading facility for the exporting country
    •  an acceptable reduction of risk to the importing country
    •  a technical basis for adapting the importing regulations of the importing country.

Outcome  Three possible outcomes of the review can be envisaged.

  • • 
    The arrangement has been successful; the original or appropriately modified measures can be applied with confidence –the import regulations are rapidly modified and trade takes place under a normal PC. Monitoring and auditing should be maintained according to normal phytosanitary procedures.
  • • 
    The arrangement has been partially successful but certain measures require modification or further validation –the transitional arrangement continues with modified conditions for a further defined period and review.
  • • 
    The arrangement has not been successful –the arrangement is suspended.

Communication of reason for outcome  At all stages in a transitional arrangement, the importing country should notify the exporting country of the reason for outcomes (including rationale).

Appendix 2 – Relation between wood commodities

Round wood, defined in ISPM 5 as ‘Wood not sawn longitudinally, carrying its natural rounded surface, with or without bark’ is equivalent to logs, whether with bark or debarked. It is contrasted with Sawn wood, defined in ISPM 5 as ‘Wood sawn longitudinally, with or without its natural rounded surface with or without bark’, which may be squared wood or non-squared wood depending on whether there are any remnants of the natural rounded surface. The terms in bold are defined terms.

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