Abstract. The effects of prolonged substitution of readily digested carbohydrates (wheat starch) for poorly digested carbohydrates (mixture of various fibres and crude potato starch) on plasma lipids, lipoproteins and hormones were investigated in Zucker, genetically obese rats. Lean rats were also studied in parallel. Usually, plasma lipid and insulin levels and insulin/glucose ratio were higher in obese rats vs. their lean littermates. High-fibre diet intake led to weight loss in both obese and lean rats. With a high-fibre diet, plasma lipid, insulin and glucose postprandial levels in both groups were reduced when compared with their respective control animals. Dietary fibre modified the lipoprotein profile. Triglycerides and cholesterol were reduced in all studied lipoprotein fractions. The study of high density lipoprotein (HDL) fraction in rats fed a high-fibre diet demonstrated a decrease in the HDL1 subpopulation and in the apolipoprotein (apo)E proportion. The findings show that a high-fibre diet modulates plasma lipid, insulin and glucose levels and modifies the plasma lipoprotein distribution and composition in normolipaemic, lean rats as well as in hyperlipaemic, genetically obese rats.