• 1
    Lennert K, Parwaresch MR. Mast cells and mast cell neoplasia: a review. Histopathology 1979;3:34965.
  • 2
    Parwaresch MR, Horny H-P, Lennert K. Tissue mast cells in health and disease. Path Res Pract 1985;179:43961.
  • 3
    Metcalfe DD. Classification and diagnosis of mastocytosis: current status. J Invest Dermatol 1991;96:2S4S.
  • 4
    Austen KF. Systemic mastocytosis. N Engl J Med 1992;326:63940.
  • 5
    Valent P. Biology, classification and treatment of human mastocytosis. Wien Klin Wochenschr 1996;108:38597.
  • 6
    Escribano L, Akin C, Castells M, Orfao A, Metcalfe DD. Mastocytosis: current concepts in diagnosis and treatment. Ann Hematol 2002;81:67790.
  • 7
    Valent P, Akin C, Sperr WR, Arock M, Lechner K, Bennett JM et al. Diagnosis and treatment of systemic mastocytosis: state of the art. Br J Haematol 2003;122:695717.
  • 8
    Akin C, Metcalfe DD. Systemic mastocytosis. Annu Rev Med 2004;55:41932.
  • 9
    Valent P, Horny H-P, Escribano L, Longley BJ, Li CY, Schwartz LB et al. Diagnostic criteria and classification of mastocytosis: a consensus proposal. Conference Report of ‘Year 2000 Working Conference on Mastocytosis’. Leuk Res 2001;25:60325.
  • 10
    Valent P, Horny H-P, Li CY, Longley JB, Metcalfe DD, Parwaresch RM et al. Mastocytosis (Mast cell disease). World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours. Pathology & Genetics. JaffeES, HarrisNL, SteinH, VardimanJW, editors. Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Lyon, France: IARC Press; 2001;1:291302.
  • 11
    Valent P, Akin C, Sperr WR, Escribano L, Arock M, Horny HP et al. Aggressive systemic mastocytosis and related mast cell disorders: current treatment options and proposed response criteria. Leuk Res 2003;27:63541.
  • 12
    Tefferi A, Pardanani A. Clinical, genetic, and therapeutic insights into systemic mast cell disease. Curr Opin Hematol 2004;11:5864.
  • 13
    Valent P, Ghannadan M, Akin C, Krauth MT, Selzer E, Mayerhofer M et al. On the way to targeted therapy of mast cell neoplasms: identification of molecular targets in neoplastic mast cells and evaluation of arising treatment concepts. Eur J Clin Invest 2004;34:4152.
  • 14
    Wolff K, Komar M, Petzelbauer P. Clinical and histopathological aspects of cutaneous mastocytosis. Leuk Res 2001;25:51928.
  • 15
    Hartmann K, Henz BM. Cutaneous mastocytosis – clinical heterogeneity. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:1436.
  • 16
    Brockow K. Urticaria pigmentosa. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am 2004;24:287316.
  • 17
    Garriga MM, Friedman MM, Metcalfe DD. A survey of the number and distribution of mast cells in the skin of patients with mast cell disorders. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1988;82:42532.
  • 18
    Verbov JL, Borrie PF. Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. Br J Dermatol 1971;84:1901.
  • 19
    McDermott WV, Topol BM. Systemic mastocytosis with extensive large cutaneous mastocytomas: surgical management. J Surg Oncol 1985;30:2215.
  • 20
    Hannaford R, Rogers M. Presentation of cutaneous mastocytosis in 173 children. Australas J Dermatol 2001;42:1521.
  • 21
    Brockow K, Akin C, Huber M, Metcalfe DD. Assessment of the extent of cutaneous involvement in children and adults with mastocytosis: relationship to symptomatology, tryptase levels, and bone marrow pathology. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:50816.
  • 22
    Caplan RM. The natural course of urticaria pigmentosa. Arch Dermatol 1963;87:14657.
  • 23
    Brockow K, Scott LM, Worobec AS, Kirshenbaum A, Akin C, Huber MM et al. Regression of urticaria pigmentosa in adult patients with systemic mastocytosis. Arch Dermatol 2002;138:78590.
  • 24
    Metcalfe DD. The treatment of mastocytosis: an overview. J Invest Dermatol 1991;96:55S56S.
  • 25
    Wolff K. Treatment of cutaneous mastocytosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:1569.
  • 26
    Soter NA, Austen KF, Wasserman SI. Oral disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of systemic mastocytosis. N Engl J Med 1979;301:4659.
  • 27
    Czarnetzki BM, Behrendt J. Urticaria pigmentosa: clinical picture and response to oral disodium cromoglycate. Br J Dermatol 1981;105:5637.
  • 28
    Godt O, Proksch E, Streit V, Christophers E. Short- and long-term effectiveness of oral and bath PUVA therapy in urticaria pigmentosa and systemic mastocytosis. Dermatology 1997;195:359.
  • 29
    Kors JW, Van Doormaal JJ, De Monchy JG. Anaphylactoid shock following hymenoptera sting as a presenting symptom of systemic mastocytosis. J Intern Med 1993;233:2558.
  • 30
    Biedermann T, Rueff F, Sander CA, Przybilla B. Mastocytosis associated with severe wasp sting anaphylaxis detected by elevated serum mast cell tryptase levels. Br J Dermatol 1999;141:11102.
  • 31
    Harvey JA, Anderson HC, Borek D, Morris D, Lukert BP. Osteoporosis associated with mastocytosis confined to bone: report of two cases. Bone 1989;10:23741.
  • 32
    Lidor C, Frisch B, Gazit D, Gepstein R, Hallel T, Mekori YA. Osteoporosis as the sole presentation of bone marrow mastocytosis. J Bone Miner Res 1990;5:8716.
  • 33
    Floman Y, Amir G. Systemic mastocytosis presenting with severe spinal osteopenia and multiple compression fractures. J Spinal Disord 1991;4:36973.
  • 34
    Horny H-P, Parwaresch MR, Lennert K. Bone marrow findings in systemic mastocytosis. Human Pathol 1985;16:80814.
  • 35
    Horny HP, Valent P. Diagnosis of mastocytosis: general histopathological aspects, morphological criteria, and immunohistochemical findings. Leuk Res 2001;25:54351.
  • 36
    Li WV, Kapadia SB, Sonmez-Alpan E, Swerdlow SH. Immunohistochemical characterization of mast cell disease in paraffin sections using tryptase, CD68, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme, and CD20 antibodies. Mod Pathol 1996;9:9828.
  • 37
    Horny HP, Sillaber C, Menke D, Kaiserling E, Wehrmann M, Stehberger B et al. Diagnostic value of immunostaining for tryptase in patients with mastocytosis. Am J Surg Pathol 1998;22:113240.
  • 38
    Fukuda T, Kamishima T, Tsuura Y, Suzuki T, Kakihara T, Naito M et al. Expression of the c-kit gene product in normal and neoplastic mast cells but not in neoplastic basophil/mast cell precursors from chronic myelogenous leukaemia. J Pathol 1995;177:13946.
  • 39
    Jordan JH, Walchshofer S, Jurecka W, Mosberger I, Sperr WR, Wolff K et al. Immunohistochemical properties of bone marrow mast cells in systemic mastocytosis: evidence for expression of CD2, CD117/Kit, and bcl-x (L). Hum Pathol 2001;32:5452.
  • 40
    Sotlar K, Horny HP, Simonitsch I, Krokowski M, Aichberger KJ, Mayerhofer M et al. CD25 indicates the neoplastic phenotype of mast cells: a novel immunohistochemical marker for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis (SM) in routinely processed bone marrow biopsy specimens. Am J Surg Pathol 2004;28:131925.
  • 41
    Krokowski M, Sotlar K, Krauth MT, Födinger M, Valent P, Horny HP. Delineation of patterns of bone marrow mast cell infiltration in systemic mastocytosis: value of CD25, correlation with subvariants of the disease, and separation from mast cell hyperplasia. Am J Clin Pathol 2005;124:5608.
  • 42
    Horny HP, Sotlar K, Krokowski M, Agis H, Schwartz LB, Valent P. The tryptase-positive compact round cell infiltrate of the bone marrow (TROCI-bm): a histopathological challenge. J Clin Pathol 2006;59:298302.
  • 43
    Sperr WR, Jordan JH, Baghestanian M, Kiener HP, Samorapoompichit P, Semper H et al. Expression of mast cell tryptase by myeloblasts in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Blood 2001;98:22009.
  • 44
    Samorapoompichit P, Kiener HP, Schernthaner GH, Jordan JH, Agis H, Wimazal F et al. Detection of tryptase in cytoplasmic granules of basophils in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia and other myeloid neoplasms. Blood 2001;98:25803.
  • 45
    Agis H, Krauth MT, Böhm A, Mosberger I, Müllauer L, Simonitsch-Klupp I et al. Identification of basogranulin (BB1) as a novel immunohistochemical marker of basophils in normal bone marrow and patients with myeloproliferative disorders. Am J Clin Pathol 2006;125:19.
  • 46
    Agis H, Krauth MT, Mosberger I, Müllauer L, Simonitsch-Klupp I, Schwartz LB et al. Enumeration and immunohistochemical characterization of basophils in normal bone marrow and patients with myeloproliferative disorders employing the 2D7 antibody. J Clin Pathol 2006;59:396402.
  • 47
    Akin C, Fumo G, Yavuz AS, Lipsky PE, Neckers L, Metcalfe DD. A novel form of mastocytosis associated with a transmembrane c-kit mutation and response to imatinib. Blood 2004;103:32225.
  • 48
    Jordan JH, Schernthaner GH, Fritsche-Polanz R, Sperr WR, Födinger M, Chott A et al. Stem cell factor-induced bone marrow mast cell hyperplasia mimicking systemic mastocytosis (SM): histopathologic and morphologic evaluation with special reference to recently established SM-criteria. Leuk Lymphoma 2002;43:57582.
  • 49
    Butterfield JH, Li CY. Bone marrow biopsies for the diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis: is one biopsy sufficient ? Am J Clin Pathol 2004;121:2647.
  • 50
    Bernd HW, Sotlar K, Lorenzen J, Osieka R, Fabry U, Valent P et al. Report of an unusual case and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol. 2004;57:3248.
  • 51
    Sperr WR, Walchshofer S, Horny HP, Födinger M, Simonitsch I, Fritsche-Polanz R et al. Systemic mastocytosis associated with acute myeloid leukaemia: report of two cases and detection of the c-kit mutation Asp-816 to Val. Br J Haematol 1998;103:7409.
  • 52
    Schnittger S, Kohl TM, Haferlach T, Kern W, Hiddemann W, Spiekermann K et al. KIT-D816 mutations in AML1-ETO positive AML are associated with impaired event-free and overall survival. Blood 2006;107:17919.
  • 53
    Beghini A, Larizza L, Cairoli R, Morra E. c-kit activating mutations and mast cell proliferation in human leukemia. Blood 1998;92:7012.
  • 54
    Sperr WR, Escribano L, Jordan JH, Schernthaner GH, Kundi M, Horny HP et al. Morphologic properties of neoplastic mast cells: delineation of stages of maturation and implication for cytological grading of mastocytosis. Leuk Res 2001;25:52936.
  • 55
    Stevens EC, Rosenthal NS. Bone marrow mast cell morphologic features and hematopoietic dyspoiesis in systemic mast cell disease. Am J Clin Pathol 2001;116: 17782.
  • 56
    Valent P, Akin C, Sperr WR, Horny HP, Metcalfe DD. Smouldering mastocytosis: a novel subtype of systemic mastocytosis with slow progression. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:1379.
  • 57
    Escribano L, Orfao A, Diaz-Agustin B, Villarrubia J, Cervero C, Lopez A et al. Indolent systemic mast cell disease in adults: immunophenotypic characterization of bone marrow mast cells and its diagnostic implications. Blood 1998;91:27316.
  • 58
    Escribano L, Diaz-Agustin B, Bellas C, Navalon R, Nunez R, Sperr WR et al. Utility of flow cytometric analysis of mast cells in the diagnosis and classification of adult mastocytosis. Leuk Res 2001;25:56370.
  • 59
    Escribano L, Diaz-Agustin B, Lopez A, Nunez Lopez R, Garcia-Montero A, Almeida J et al.Immunophenotypic analysis of mast cells in mastocytosis: When and how to do it. Proposals of the Spanish Network on Mastocytosis (REMA). Cytometry B Clin Cytom 2004;58:18.
  • 60
    Nagata H, Worobec AS, Oh CK, Chowdhury BA, Tannenbaum S, Suzuki Y et al. Identification of a point mutation in the catalytic domain of the protooncogene c-kit in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients who have mastocytosis with an associated hematologic disorder. Proc Natl Acad Sci (USA) 1995;92:105604.
  • 61
    Longley BJ, Tyrrell L, Lu SZ, Ma YS, Langley K, Ding TG et al. Somatic c-kit activating mutation in urticaria pigmentosa and aggressive mastocytosis: establishment of clonality in a human mast cell neoplasm. Nat Genet 1996;12:3124.
  • 62
    Longley BJ, Metcalfe DD, Tharp M, Wang X, Tyrrell L, Lu SZ et al. Activating and dominant inactivating c-kit catalytic domain mutations in distinct forms of human mastocytosis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1999;96:160914.
  • 63
    Fritsche-Polanz R, Jordan JH, Feix A, Sperr WR, Sunder-Plassmann G, Valent P et al. Mutation analysis of C-KIT in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes without mastocytosis and cases of systemic mastocytosis. Br J Haematol 2001;113:35764.
  • 64
    Longley BJ, Reguera MJ, Ma Y. Classes of c-KIT activating mutations: proposed mechanisms of action and implications for disease classification and therapy. Leuk Res 2001;25:5716.
  • 65
    Feger F, Ribadeau Dumas A, Leriche L, Valent P, Arock M. Kit and c-kit mutations in mastocytosis: a short overview with special reference to novel molecular and diagnostic concepts. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:1104.
  • 66
    Furitsu T, Tsujimura T, Tono T, Ikeda H, Kitayama H, Koshimizu U et al. Identification of mutations in the coding sequence of the proto-oncogene c-kit in a human mast cell leukemia cell line causing ligand-independent activation of the c-kit product. J Clin Invest 1993;92:173644.
  • 67
    Büttner C, Henz BM, Welker P, Sepp NT, Grabbe J. Identification of activating c-kit mutations in adult-, but not in childhood-onset indolent mastocytosis: a possible explanation for divergent clinical behavior. J Invest Dermatol 1998;111:122731.
  • 68
    Pignon JM, Giraudier S, Duquesnoy P, Jouault H, Imbert M, Vainchenker W et al. A new c-kit mutation in a case of aggressive mast cell disease. Br J Haematol 1997;96:3746.
  • 69
    Pullarkat VA, Bueso-Ramos C, Lai R, Kroft S, Wilson CS, Pullarkat ST et al. Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal hematological non-mast-cell lineage disease: analysis of clinicopathologic features and activating c-kit mutations. Am J Hematol 2003;73:127.
  • 70
    Garcia-Montero AC, Jara-Acevedo M, Teodosio C, Sanchez ML, Nunez R, Prados A et al. KIT mutation in mast cells and other bone marrow haematopoietic cell lineages in systemic mast cell disorders. A prospective study of the Spanish Network on Mastocytosis (REMA) in a series of 113 patients. Blood 2006;108:236672.
  • 71
    Sotlar K, Escribano L, Landt O, Mohrle S, Herrero S, Torrelo A et al. One-step detection of c-kit point mutations using peptide nucleic acid-mediated polymerase chain reaction clamping and hybridization probes. Am J Pathol 2003;162:73746.
  • 72
    Yanagihori H, Oyama N, Nakamura K, Kaneko F. c-kit Mutations in patients with childhood-onset mastocytosis and genotype-phenotype correlation. J Mol Diagn 2005;7:2527.
  • 73
    Tang X, Boxer M, Drummond A, Ogston P, Hodgins M, Burden AD. A germline mutation in KIT in familial diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis. J Med Genet 2004;41:88.
  • 74
    Zhang LY, Smith ML, Schultheis B, Fitzgibbon J, Lister TA, Melo JV et al. A novel K509I mutation of KIT identified in familial mastocytosis-in vitro and in vivo responsiveness to imatinib therapy. Leuk Res 2005;30:3738.
  • 75
    Hartmann K, Wardelmann E, Ma Y, Merkelbach-Bruse S, Preussner LM, Woolery C et al. Novel germline mutation of KIT associated with familial gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis. Gastroenterology 2005;129:10426.
  • 76
    Beghini A, Tibiletti MG, Roversi G, Chiaravalli AM, Serio G, Capella C et al. Germline mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of the kit gene in a family with gastrointestinal stromal tumors and urticaria pigmentosa. Cancer 2001;92:65762.
  • 77
    De Silva CM, Reid R. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST): C-kit mutations, CD117 expression, differential diagnosis and targeted cancer therapy with Imatinib. Pathol Oncol Res 2003;9:139.
  • 78
    Debiec-Rychter M, Cools J, Dumez H, Sciot R, Stul M, Mentens N et al. Mechanisms of resistance to imatinib mesylate in gastrointestinal stromal tumors and activity of the PKC412 inhibitor against imatinib-resistant mutants. Gastroenterology 2005;128:2709.
  • 79
    Rapley EA, Hockley S, Warren W, Johnson L, Huddart R, Crockford G et al. Somatic mutations of KIT in familial testicular germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer 2004;90:2397401.
  • 80
    Nakai Y, Nonomura N, Oka D, Shiba M, Arai Y, Nakayama M et al. KIT (c-kit oncogene product) pathway is constitutively activated in human testicular germ cell tumors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2005;337:28996.
  • 81
    Jordan JH, Fritsche-Polanz R, Sperr WR, Mitterbauer G, Födinger M, Schernthaner GH et al. A case of ‘smouldering’ mastocytosis with high mast cell burden, monoclonal myeloid cells, and C-KIT mutation Asp-816-Val. Leuk Res 2001;25:62734.
  • 82
    Hauswirth AW, Sperr WR, Ghannadan M, Schernthaner GH, Jordan JH, Fritsche-Polanz R et al. A case of smouldering mastocytosis with peripheral blood eosinophilia and lymphadenopathy. Leuk Res 2002;26:6016.
  • 83
    Yavuz AS, Lipsky PE, Yavuz S, Metcalfe DD, Akin C. Evidence for the involvement of a hematopoietic progenitor cell in systemic mastocytosis from single-cell analysis of mutations in the c-kit gene. Blood 2002;100:6615.
  • 84
    Akin C, Kirshenbaum AS, Semere T, Worobec AS, Scott LM, Metcalfe DD. Analysis of the surface expression of c-kit and occurrence of the c-kit Asp816Val activating mutation in T cells, B cells, and myelomonocytic cells in patients with mastocytosis. Exp Hematol 2000;28:1407.
  • 85
    Worobec AS, Semere T, Nagata H, Metcalfe DD. Clinical correlates of the presence of the Asp816Val c-kit mutation in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with mastocytosis. Cancer 1998;83:21209.
  • 86
    Zermati Y, De Sepulveda P, Feger F, Letard S, Kersual J, Casteran N et al. Effect of tyrosine kinase inhibitor STI571 on the kinase activity of wild-type and various mutated c-kit receptors found in mast cell neoplasms. Oncogene 2003;22:6604.
  • 87
    Schwartz LB, Metcalfe DD, Miller JS, Earl H, Sullivan T. Tryptase levels as an indicator of mast cell activation in systemic anaphylaxis and mastocytosis. N Engl J Med 1987;316:16226.
  • 88
    Schwartz LB, Sakai K, Bradford TR, Ren S, Zweiman B, Worobec AS et al. The alpha form of human tryptase is the predominant type present in blood at baseline in normal subjects and is elevated in those with systemic mastocytosis. J Clin Invest 1995;96:270210.
  • 89
    Sperr WR, Jordan JH, Fiegl M, Escribano L, Bellas C, Dirnhofer S et al. Serum tryptase levels in patients with mastocytosis: correlation with mast cell burden and implication for defining the category of disease. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;128:13641.
  • 90
    Kanthawatana S, Carias K, Arnaout R, Hu J, Irani AM, Schwartz LB. The potential clinical utility of serum alpha-protryptase levels. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:10929.
  • 91
    Schwartz LB, Min HK, Ren S, Xia HZ, Hu J, Zhao W et al. Tryptase precursors are preferentially and spontaneously released, whereas mature tryptase is retained by HMC-1 cells, Mono-Mac-6 cells, and human skin-derived mast cells. J Immunol 2003;170:566773.
  • 92
    Schwartz LB. Clinical utility of tryptase levels in systemic mastocytosis and associated hematologic disorders. Leuk Res 2001;25:55362.
  • 93
    Valent P, Sperr WR, Schwartz LB, Horny HP. Diagnosis and classification of mast cell proliferative disorders: delineation from immunologic diseases and non-mast cell hematopoietic neoplasms. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:311.
  • 94
    Schwartz LB, Bradford TR, Rouse C, Irani AM, Rasp G, Van der Zwan JK et al. Development of a new, more sensitive immunoassay for human tryptase: use in systemic anaphylaxis. J Clin Immunol 1994;14:190204.
  • 95
    Min HK, Moxley G, Neale MC, Schwartz LB. Effect of sex and haplotype on plasma tryptase levels in healthy adults. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:4851.
  • 96
    Brezin AL, Brezin JH, Raible DG, Raible DJ, Schwartz LB. Elevated stem cell factor and alpha-protryptase levels in uremia. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1999;103:S899.
  • 97
    Sperr WR, Stehberger B, Wimazal F, Baghestanian M, Schwartz LB, Kundi M et al. Serum tryptase measurements in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes. Leuk Lymphoma 2002;43:1097105.
  • 98
    Akin C, Schwartz LB, Kitoh T, Obayashi H, Worobec AS, Scott LM et al. Soluble stem cell factor receptor (CD117) and IL-2 receptor alpha chain (CD25) levels in the plasma of patients with mastocytosis: relationships to disease severity and bone marrow pathology. Blood 2000;96:126773.
  • 99
    Akin C, Metcalfe DD. Surrogate markers of disease in mastocytosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:1336.
  • 100
    Kluin-Nelemans HC, Oldhoff JM, Van Doormaal JJ, Van't de Wout JW, Verhoef G, Gerrits WB et al. Cladribine therapy for systemic mastocytosis. Blood 2003;102:42706.
  • 101
    Hauswirth AW, Simonitsch-Klupp I, Uffmann M, Koller E, Sperr WR, Lechner K et al. Response to therapy with interferon alpha-2b and prednisolone in aggressive systemic mastocytosis: report of five cases and review of the literature. Leuk Res 2004;28:24957.
  • 102
    Van Toorenenbergen AW, Oranje AP. Comparison of serum tryptase and urine N-methylhistamine in patients with suspected mastocytosis. Clin Chim Acta 2005;359:727.
  • 103
    Brockow K, Akin C, Huber M, Metcalfe DD. Assessment of the extent of cutaneous involvement in children and adults with mastocytosis: relationship to symptomatology, tryptase levels, and bone marrow pathology. J Am Acad Dermatol 2003;48:50816.
  • 104
    Keyzer JJ, De Monchy JG, Van Doormaal JJ, Van Voorst Vader PC. Improved diagnosis of mastocytosis by measurement of urinary histamine metabolites. N Engl J Med 1983;309:16035.
  • 105
    Van Gysel D, Oranje AP, Vermeiden I, De Lijster de Raadt J, Mulder PG, Van Toorenenbergen AW. Value of urinary N-methylhistamine measurements in childhood mastocytosis. J Am Acad Dermatol 1996;35:5568.
  • 106
    Oranje AP, Mulder PG, Heide R, Tank B, Riezebos P, Van Toorenenbergen AW. Urinary N-methylhistamine as an indicator of bone marrow involvement in mastocytosis. Clin Exp Dermatol 2002;27:5026.
  • 107
    Castells M, Austen KF. Mastocytosis: mediator-related signs and symptoms. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:14752.
  • 108
    Castells MC. Mastocytosis: classification, diagnosis, and clinical presentation. Allergy Asthma Proc 2004;25:336.
  • 109
    The diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis. Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1998;101:S465S528.
  • 110
    Brown SG. Clinical features and severity grading of anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2004;114:3716.
  • 111
    Sampson HA, Munoz-Furlong A, Bock SA, Schmitt C, Bass R, Chowdhury BA et al. Symposium on the definition and management of anaphylaxis: summary report. J Allergy Clin Immunol 2005;115:58491.
  • 112
    Haeberli G, Bronnimann M, Hunziker T, Müller U. Elevated basal serum tryptase and hymenoptera venom allergy: relation to severity of sting reactions and to safety and efficacy of venom immunotherapy. Clin Exp Allergy 2003;33:121620.
  • 113
    Fricker M, Helbling A, Schwartz L, Müller U. Hymenoptera sting anaphylaxis and urticaria pigmentosa: clinical findings and results of venom immunotherapy in ten patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;100:115.
  • 114
    Oude Elberink JN, De Monchy JG, Kors JW, Van Doormaal JJ, Dubois AE. Fatal anaphylaxis after a yellow jacket sting, despite venom immunotherapy, in two patients with mastocytosis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997;99:1534.
  • 115
    Travis WD, Li CY, Yam LT, Bergstralh EJ, Swee RG. Significance of systemic mast cell disease with associated hematologic disorders. Cancer 1988;62:96572.
  • 116
    Horny H-P, Ruck M, Wehrmann M, Kaiserling E. Blood findings in generalized mastocytosis: evidence of frequent simultaneous occurrence of myeloproliferative disorders. Br J Haematol 1990;76:18693.
  • 117
    Lawrence JB, Friedman BS, Travis WD, Chinchilli VM, Metcalfe DD, Gralnick HR. Hematologic manifestation of systemic mast cell disease: a prospective study of laboratory and morphologic features and their relation to prognosis. Am J Med 1991;91:61224.
  • 118
    Sperr WR, Horny HP, Valent P. Spectrum of associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disorders occurring in patients with systemic mastocytosis. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 2002;127:1402.
  • 119
    Horny HP, Sotlar K, Sperr WR, Valent P. Systemic mastocytosis with associated clonal haematological non-mast cell lineage diseases: a histopathological challenge. J Clin Pathol 2004;57:6048.
  • 120
    Sperr WR, Horny HP, Lechner K, Valent P. Clinical and biologic diversity of leukemias occurring in patients with mastocytosis. Leuk Lymphoma 2000;37:47386.
  • 121
    Agis H, Sotlar K, Valent P, Horny HP. Ph-Chromosome-positive chronic myeloid leukemia with associated bone marrow mastocytosis. Leuk Res 2005;29:122732.
  • 122
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR et al. Proposals for the classification of the acute leukaemias. French-American-British (FAB) co-operative group. Br J Haematol 1976;33:4518.
  • 123
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR et al. Proposals for the classification of the myelodysplastic syndromes. Br J Haematol 1982;51:18999.
  • 124
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR et al. Criteria for the diagnosis of acute leukemia of megakaryocyte lineage (M7). A report of the French-American-British Cooperative Group. Ann Intern Med 1985;103:4602.
  • 125
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick HR et al. Proposal for the recognition of minimally differentiated acute myeloid leukaemia (AML-MO). Br J Haematol 1991;78:3259.
  • 126
    Bennett JM, Catovsky D, Daniel MT, Flandrin G, Galton DA, Gralnick H et al. The chronic myeloid leukaemias: guidelines for distinguishing chronic granulocytic, atypical chronic myeloid, and chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia. Proposals by the French-American-British Cooperative Leukaemia Group. Br J Haematol 1994;87:74654.
  • 127
    Harris NL, Jaffe ES, Diebold J, Flandrin G, Muller-Hermelink HK, Vardiman J et al. World Health Organization classification of neoplastic diseases of the hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues: report of the Clinical Advisory Committee meeting-Airlie House, Virginia, November 1997. J Clin Oncol 1999;17:383549.
  • 128
    Shimada A, Taki T, Tabuchi K, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tsuchida M et al. KIT mutations, and not FLT3 internal tandem duplication, are strongly associated with a poor prognosis in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t (8 2006, ; 21: a study of the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Blood 2006;107:18069.
  • 129
    Cairoli R, Beghini A, Grillo G, Nadali G, Elice F, Ripamonti CB et al. Prognostic impact of c-KIT mutations in core binding factor leukemias. an Italian retrospective study. Blood 2006;107:34638.
  • 130
    Pardanani A, Ketterling RP, Brockman SR, Flynn HC, Paternoster SF, Shearer BM et al. CHIC2 deletion, a surrogate for FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion, occurs in systemic mastocytosis associated with eosinophilia and predicts response to imatinib mesylate therapy. Blood 2003;102:30936.
  • 131
    Pardanani A, Brockman SR, Paternoster SF, Flynn HC, Ketterling RP, Lasho TL et al. FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion: prevalence and clinicopathologic correlates in 89 consecutive patients with moderate to severe eosinophilia. Blood 2004;104:303845.
  • 132
    Reisberg IR, Oyakawa S. Mastocytosis with malabsorption, myelofibrosis, and massive ascites. Am J Gastroenterol 1987;82:5460.
  • 133
    Cherner JA, Jensen RT, Dubois A, O'Dorisio TM, Gardner JD, Metcalfe DD. Gastrointestinal dysfunction in systemic mastocytosis. A prospective study. Gastroenterology 1988;95:65767.
  • 134
    Jensen RT. Gastrointestinal abnormalities and involvement in systemic mastocytosis. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am 2000;14:579623.