Yehuda Shoenfeld is the incumbent of the Laura Schwarz-Kipp Chair for Research of Autoimmune Diseases, Tel-Aviv University.
Neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome
Article first published online: 19 FEB 2010
© 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation
European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Volume 40, Issue 4, pages 350–359, April 2010
How to Cite
Rodrigues, C. E. M., Carvalho, J. F. and Shoenfeld, Y. (2010), Neurological manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 40: 350–359. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2010.02263.x
- Issue published online: 17 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 19 FEB 2010
- Received 6 January 2010; accepted 12 January 2010
- Antiphospholipid antibodies;
- antiphospholipid syndrome;
- neurological manifestations
Eur J Clin Invest 2010; 40 (4): 350–359
Background Neurologic disorders are among the most common and important clinical manifestations associated with the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). It is characterized by diverse neurological manifestations. These include stroke, transient ischaemic attack, Sneddon’s syndrome, convulsions/epilepsy, dementia, cognitive deficits, headaches/migraine, chorea, multiple sclerosis-like, transverse myelitis, ocular symptoms and Guillain–Barré syndrome.
Material and methods We review the latest data about neurologic disorders and APS.
Results In patients under 45 years of age, 20% of strokes are potentially associated with APS. Our study group recently reported a correlation between primary APS and peripheral neuropathy. Only one study investigated the occurrence of peripheral neuropathy in patients diagnosed with PAPS through electrophysiological study and showed alterations in 35% of patients. The mechanism of nervous system involvement in APS is considered to be primarily thrombotic. However, other mechanisms have been described, such as antiphospholipid antibodies that bind to the neural tissue, deregulating their functions and having an immediate pathogenic effect.
Conclusions This review summarizes the latest data regarding the clinical aspects, radiological and therapeutic of major neurologic manifestations associated with antiphospholipid antibodies.