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Keywords:

  • Biomarker;
  • CKD;
  • CXCL16;
  • renal function

Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (8): 836–845

Abstract

Background  C-X-C chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16) is a scavenger receptor for oxidized low-density lipoprotein that has been shown to promote atherogenic effects in vivo and to predict the long-term mortality in acute coronary syndrome. We conducted a cross-sectional study to test the hypothesis that elevated CXCL16 concentrations are associated with the change in renal function in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) at different stages of disease.

Materials and methods  Two hundred and forty subjects including 200 patients with CKD (146 CKD from outpatients and 54 CKD with long-term haemodialysis) and 40 normal control subjects were recruited into this study. All CKD subjects underwent echocardiograms to assess left ventricular mass index. Plasma levels of CXCL16 and other relevant clinical and biochemical parameters in all subjects were obtained upon standard clinical examinations.

Results  Plasma CXCL16 levels were significantly increased with the development of CKD from early- and end-stage (P < 0·001 for trend) and significantly higher in CKD subjects than those of normal subjects (P < 0·001). Furthermore, plasma CXCL16 levels in CKD patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) were higher than those of CKD patients without DM. Multiple stepwise regression analyses indicated that plasma CXCL16 levels were independently associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate, C-reactive protein and adiponectin (all P < 0·05).

Conclusions  Plasma CXCL16 levels are significantly increased with the development of early- to end-stage CKD and are independently associated with the change in renal function. Elucidating the role of CXCL16 as a biomarker or disease modifier in CKD progression requires further study.