Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (12): 1284–1291
Background The association of visfatin, an adipocytokine relevant to the development of inflammation and metabolic disorders, with juvenile obesity needs to be re-established as previously used tests occurred to be nonspecific.
Objective To evaluate visfatin association with a metabolic profile of 88 overweight/obese and 26 lean children/adolescents as well as changes in its levels following weight reduction programme (diet + enhanced physical activity ± metformin).
Design A case–control and cohort study.
Results Visfatin was higher in obese than lean and overweight individuals (2·07 vs. 1·53 and 1·47 ng mL−1, P = 0·034). Of metabolic syndrome components, central obesity combined with either insulin resistance (IR) or hyperinsulinemia (HI) was associated with increases in circulating visfatin. In girls, visfatin correlated with leptin (r = 0·40, P = 0·009) and thiols (r = −0·36, P = 0·009), which explained 24% in visfatin variability. In boys, visfatin correlated with waist circumference (r = 0·36, P = 0·036), BMI% (r = 0·38, P = 0·025), whole body insulin sensitivity index (r = −0·36, P = 0·036), IL-6 (r = 0·38, P = 0·024) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) (r = 0·52, P = 0·001), of which IL-6 and TBARS were independent predictors of visfatin elevation, explaining 42% in data variability. Visfatin was significantly lower following weight reduction programme than at baseline (1·43 vs. 1·83 ng mL−1, P = 0·033). Visfatin reduction correlated neither with changes in metabolic parameters nor was it affected by metformin. ΔVisfatin correlated exclusively with baseline visfatin (r = 0·612, P < 0·0001), which explained 38% in data variability.
Conclusions Central obesity combined with HI/IR contributes to visfatin elevation. Visfatin association with metabolic/biochemical variables is gender dependent. Diet + enhanced physical activity are effective in visfatin reduction, the degree of which depends on baseline visfatin.