Effects of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines on the bone
Article first published online: 25 MAY 2011
© 2011 The Author. European Journal of Clinical Investigation © 2011 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation
European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Volume 41, Issue 12, pages 1361–1366, December 2011
How to Cite
Schett, G. (2011), Effects of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines on the bone. European Journal of Clinical Investigation, 41: 1361–1366. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2362.2011.02545.x
- Issue published online: 16 NOV 2011
- Article first published online: 25 MAY 2011
- Received 17 April 2011; accepted 19 April 2011
Eur J Clin Invest 2011; 41 (12): 1361–1366
Background Inflammatory diseases are linked to enhanced bone loss. The effect of inflammation on bone is mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, which regulate bone formation as well as bone resorption thereby altering bone homeostasis.
Materials and methods In this article we summarize the key insights in cytokine regulation of bone. We describe the major pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, which are involved in the regulation of bone and describe the mechanisms by which these cytokines alter bone balance.
Results We describe the effects of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)- 1 family members, IL-6, IL-17 and interferons (IFN) on bone and discuss the mechanisms by which these individual cytokines affect the bone resorbing and the bone forming cells.
Conclusions Several proinflammatory cytokines (such as TNFa, IL-1 and IL-17) are major triggers for osteoclast activation explaining the enhanced bone loss during inflammation. Other such as IL-12, IL-18, IL-33 and IFN are strong suppressors of osteoclast differentiation and inhibit bone loss. Thus the cytokine composition of an inflammatory tissue is decisive whether inflammation triggers bone loss or not.