Active tissue factor and activated factor XI in patients with acute ischemic cerebrovascular events


Anetta Undas, MD, PhD, Institute of Cardiology, Jagiellonian University School of Medicine, 80 Pradnicka St. 31-202 Krakow, Poland. Tel.: +48 12 6143004; fax: +48 12 4233900; e-mail:


Eur J Clin Invest 2011


Background  Elevated factor (F)XI and tissue factor (TF) have been reported to occur in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). We sought to investigate whether circulating activated FXI (FXIa) and TF on admission can predict clinical outcomes in patients with acute cerebrovascular events.

Materials and methods  In the observational study, we evaluated 205 consecutive patients aged 70 years or less within the first 72 h of acute event, including 140 with AIS and 65 with transient ischemic attack (TIA). Plasma TF and FXIa activity were determined on admission in clotting assays by measuring the response to inhibitory monoclonal antibodies.

Results  Active TF and FXIa activity were detected in 58 (28·9%) and 132 (64·4%) patients on admission, respectively. Active TF was detected in 45 of the 136 AIS patients with available TF levels (33·1%) and 13 of the 65 patients with acute TIA (20%; P = 0·05). Corresponding values for FXIa were 99 of the 140 (70·7%) and 33 of the 65 (50·8%; P = 0·006), respectively. Patients with detectable TF were more frequently women and hypertensive, while subjects with detectable FXIa had more often diabetes and higher levels of fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 (all P < 0·05). Patients with detectable FXIa but not TF had higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, higher modified Rankin scale score and lower Barthel Index at discharge (all P < 0·05).

Conclusions  Circulating active TF and FXIa occur frequently in acute cerebrovascular ischemic events. Active FXIa in plasma might be useful as a novel risk marker of worse functional outcomes in patients with acute cerebrovascular events.