SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adams, B.J., Bardgett, R.D., Ayres, E., Wall, D.H., Aislabie, J., Bamforth, S. et al. 2006. Diversity and distribution of Victoria Land biota. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 38, 30033018.
  • Adl, S.M., Coleman, D.C. & Read, F. 2006. Slow recovery of soil biodiversity in sandy loam soils of Georgia after 25 years of no-tillage management. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 114, 323334.
  • Anderson, J.M., Ineson, P. & Huish, S.A. 1983. Nitrogen and cation mobilization by soil fauna feeding on leaf litter and soil organic-matter from deciduous woodlands. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 15, 463467.
  • Andrén, O., Brussaard, L. & Clarholm, M. 1999. Soil organism influence on ecosystem-level processes bypassing the ecological hierarchy? Applied Soil Ecology, 11, 177188.
  • Ayres, E., Wall, D.H., Simmons, B.L., Field, C.B., Milchunas, D.G., Morgan, J.A. et al. 2008. Belowground nematode herbivores are resistant to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations in grassland ecosystems. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 978985.
  • Ayres, E., Wall, D.H. & Bardgett, R.D. 2010. Trophic interactions and their implications for soil C fluxes. In: Soil Carbon Dynamics: An Integrated Methodology (eds W.Kutsch, M.Bahn & A.Heinemeyer), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Bardgett, R.D. 2002. Causes and consequences of biological diversity in soil. Zoology, 105, 367374.
  • Bardgett, R.D. 2005. The Biology of Soil: A Community and Ecosystem Approach. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Bardgett, R.D., Whittaker, J.B. & Frankland, J.C. 1993. The effect of collembolan grazing on fungal activity in differently managed upland pastures – a microcosm study. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 16, 255262.
  • Bardgett, R.D., Yeates, G.W. & Anderson, J.M. 2005. Patterns and determinants of soil biological diversity. In: Biological Diversity and Function in Soils (eds R.D.Bardgett, M.B.Usher & D.W.Hopkins), pp. 100118. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Bardgett, R.D., Freeman, C. & Ostle, N.J. 2008. Microbial contributions to climate change through carbon-cycle feedbacks. The ISME Journal, 2, 805814.
  • Bärlocher, F. & Corkum, M. 2003. Nutrient enrichment overwhelms diversity effects in leaf decomposition by stream fungi. Oikos, 101, 247252.
  • Barrett, J.E., Virginia, R.A., Wall, D.H. & Adams, B.J. 2008. Decline in a dominant invertebrate species contributes to altered carbon cycling in a low-diversity soil ecosystem. Global Change Biology, 14, 111.
  • Batten, K.M., Scow, K.M. & Espeland, E.K. 2008. Soil microbial community associated with an invasive grass differentially impacts native plant performance. Microbial Ecology, 55, 220228.
  • Bell, T., Newman, J.A., Silverman, B.W., Turner, S.L. & Lilley, A.K. 2005. The contribution of species richness and composition to bacterial services. Nature, 436, 11571160.
  • Bengtsson, J. 1998. Which species? What kind of diversity? Which ecosystem function? Some problems in studies of relationships between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. Applied Soil Ecology, 10, 191199.
  • Bignell, D.E. & Eggleton, P. 2000. Termites in ecosystems. In: Termites: Evolution, Sociality, Symbiosis, Ecology (eds T.Abe, D.E.Bignell & M.Higashi), pp. 363387. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht.
  • Bloemers, G.F., Hodda, M., Lambshead, P.J.D., Lawton, J.H. & Wanless, F.R. 1997. The effects of forest disturbance on diversity of tropical soil nematodes. Oecologia, 111, 575582.
  • Bonkowski, M. & Roy, J. 2005. Soil microbial diversity and soil functioning affect competition among grasses in experimental microcosms. Oecologia, 143, 232240.
  • Briones, M.J.I., Ineson, P. & Heinemeyer, A. 2007. Predicting potential impacts of climate change on the geographical distribution of enchytraeids: a meta-analysis approach. Global Change Biology, 13, 22522269.
  • Brussaard, L. Behan-Pelletier, V.M., Bignell, D.E., Brown, V.K., Didden, W., Folgarait, P. et al. 1997. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in soil. Ambio, 26, 563570.
  • Chapin, F.S. III, Sturm, M., Serreze, M.C., McFadden, J.P., Key, J.R., Lloyd, A.H. et al. 2005. Role of land-surface changes in Arctic summer warming. Science, 310, 657660.
  • Chapin, F.S. III, McFarland, J., McGuire, A.D., Euskirchen, E.S., Ruess, R.W. & Kielland, K. 2009. The changing global carbon cycle: linking plant–soil carbon dynamics to global consequences. Journal of Ecology, 97, 840850.
  • Cisneros-Dozal, L.M., Trumbore, S. & Hanson, P.J. 2006. Partitioning sources of soil-respired CO2 and their seasonal variation using a unique radiocarbon tracer. Global Change Biology, 12, 194204.
  • Cole, L., Bardgett, R.D. & Ineson, P. 2000. Enchytraeid worms (Oligochaeta) enhance mineralization of carbon in organic upland soils. European Journal of Soil Science, 51, 185192.
  • Cole, L., Dromph, K.M., Boaglio, V. & Bardgett, R.D. 2004a. Effect of density and species richness of soil mesofauna on nutrient mineralization and plant growth. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 39, 337343.
  • Cole, L., Staddon, P.L., Sleep, D. & Bardgett, R.D. 2004b. Soil animals influence microbial abundance, but not plant-microbial competition for soil organic nitrogen. Functional Ecology, 18, 631640.
  • Cole, L., Bradford, M.A., Shaw, P.J.A. & Bardgett, R.D. 2006. The abundance, richness and functional role of soil meso- and macrofauna in temperate grassland – a case study. Applied Soil Ecology, 33, 186198.
  • Cole, L., Buckland, S.M. & Bardgett, R.D. 2008. Influence of disturbance and nitrogen addition on plant and soil animal diversity in grassland. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 40, 505514.
  • Coleman, D.C. & Whitman, W.B. 2005. Linking species richness, biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in soil systems. Pedobiologia, 49, 479497.
  • Convey, P. & McInnes, S.J. 2005. Exceptional tardigrade-dominated ecosystems in Ellsworth Land, Antarctica. Ecology, 86, 519527.
  • Cortez, J. & Bouche, M.B. 1998. Field decomposition of leaf litters: earthworm-microorganism interactions - the ploughing-in effect. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 30, 795804.
  • Cox, P.M., Betts, R.A., Jones, C.D., Spall, S.A. & Totterdell, I.J. 2000. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184187.
  • Cox, P., Wilkinson, S.P. & Anderson, J.M. 2001. Effects of fungal inocula on the decomposition of lignin and structural polysaccharides in Pinus sylvestris litter. Biology & Fertility of Soils, 33, 246251.
  • Cragg, R.G. & Bardgett, R.D. 2001. How changes in soil faunal diversity and compostion within a trophic group influence decomposition processes. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 33, 20732081.
  • Dang, C.K., Chauvet, E. & Gessner, M.O. 2005. Magnitude and variability of process rates in fungal diversity-litter decomposition relationships. Ecology Letters, 8, 11291137.
  • De Deyn, G.B., Cornelissen, J.H.C. & Bardgett, R.D. 2008. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes. Ecology Letters, 11, 516531.
  • Decaëns, T. & Jiménez, J.J. 2002. Earthworm communities under an agricultural intensification gradient in Colombia. Plant & Soil, 240, 133143.
  • Doran, P.T., Priscu, J.C., Lyons, W.B., Walsh, J.E., Fountain, A.G., McKnight, D.M. et al. 2002. Antarctic climate cooling and terrestrial ecosystem response. Nature, 415, 517520.
  • Eggleton, P., Bignell, D.E., Hauser, S., Dibog, L., Norgrove, L. & Madong, B. 2002. Termite diversity across an anthropogenic disturbance gradient in the humid forest zone of West Africa. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 90, 189202.
  • Ekschmitt, K., Klein, A., Pieper, B. & Wolters, V. 2001. Biodiversity and functioning of ecological communities – why is diversity important in some cases and unimportant in others? Journal of Plant Nutrition & Soil Science, 164, 239246.
  • Emmanuel, N., Curry, J.P. & Evans, G.O. 1985. The soil acari of barley plots with different cultural treatments. Experimental & Applied Acarology, 1, 101113.
  • Fang, C., Smith, P., Smith, J.U. & Moncrieff, J.B. 2005. Incorporating microorganisms as decomposers into models to simulate soil organic matter decomposition. Geoderma, 129, 139146.
  • Frankland, J.C. 1969. Fungal decomposition of bracken petioles. Journal of Ecology, 57, 2536.
  • Freckman, D.W. & Ettema, C.H. 1993. Assessing nematode communities in agroecosystems of varying human intervention. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 45, 239261.
  • Freckman, D.W. & Mankau, R. 1986. Abundance, distribution, biomass and energetics of soil nematodes in a northern Mojave desert ecosystem. Pedobiologia, 29, 129142.
  • Freckman, D.W. & Virginia, R.A. 1997. Low-diversity Antarctic soil nematode communities: distribution and response to disturbance. Ecology, 78, 363369.
  • Friedlingstein, P., Cox, P., Betts, R., Bopp, L., von Bloh, W., Brovkin, V. et al. 2006. Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: results from the (CMIP)-M-4 model intercomparison. Journal of Climate, 19, 33373353.
  • Gans, J., Wolinsky, M. & Dunbar, J. 2005. Computational improvements reveal great bacterial diversity and high metal toxicity in soil. Science, 309, 13871390.
  • González, G. & Seastedt, T.R. 2001. Soil fauna and plant litter decomposition in tropical and subalpine forests. Ecology, 82, 955964.
  • Gonzalez, A., Lawton, J.H., Gilbert, F.S., Blackburn, T.M. & Evans-Freke, I. 1998. Metapopulation dynamics, abundance, and distribution in a microecosystem. Science, 281, 20452047.
  • Griffiths, B.S., Ritz, K., Bardgett, R.D., Cook, R., Christensen, S., Ekelund, F. et al. 2000. Ecosystem response of pasture soil communities to fumigation-induced microbial diversity reductions: an examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship. Oikos, 113, 279294.
  • Griffiths, B.S., Ritz, K., Wheatley, R., Kuan, H.L., Boag, B., Christensen, S. et al. 2001. An examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship in arable soil microbial communities. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 33, 17131722.
  • Griffiths, B.S., Kuan, H.L., Ritz, K., Glover, L.A., McCaig, A.E. & Fenwick, C. 2004. The relationship between microbial community structure and functional stability, tested experimentally in an upland pasture soil. Microbial Ecology, 47, 104113.
  • Hanski, I., Koivulehto, H., Cameron, A. & Rahagalala, P. 2007. Deforestation and apparent extinctions of endemic forest beetles in Madagascar. Biology Letters, 3, 344347.
  • Hanson, C.A., Allison, S.D., Bradford, M.A., Wallenstein, M.D. & Treseder, K.K. 2008. Fungal taxa target different carbon sources in forest soil. Ecosystems, 11, 11571167.
  • Hättenschwiler, S. & Bretscher, D. 2001. Isopod effects on decomposition of litter produced under elevated CO2, N deposition and different soil types. Global Change Biology, 7, 565579.
  • Hättenschwiler, S., Tiunov, A.V. & Scheu, S. 2005. Biodiversity and litter decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. Annual Review of Ecolocy, Evolution and Systematics, 36, 191218.
  • Hector, A., Schmid, B., Beierkuhnlein, C., Caldeira, M.C., Diemer, M., Dimitrakopoulos, P.G. et al. 2000. No consistent effect of plant diversity on productivity – response. Science, 289, 1255a.
  • Hedlund, K. & Öhrn, M.S. 2000. Tritrophic interactions in a soil community enhance decomposition rates. Oikos, 88, 585591.
  • Heemsbergen, D.A., Berg, M.P., Loreau, M., van Haj, J.R., Faber, J.H. & Verhoef, H.A. 2004. Biodiversity effects on soil processes explained by interspecific functional dissimilarity. Science, 306, 10191020.
  • Heimann, M. & Reichstein, M. 2008. Terrestrial ecosystem carbon dynamics and climate feedbacks. Nature, 451, 289292.
  • Högberg, P. & Read, D.J. 2006. Towards a more plant physiological perspective on soil ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 548554.
  • Högberg, P., Nordgren, A., Buchmann, N., Taylor, A.F.S., Ekblad, A., Högberg, M.N. et al. 2001. Large-scale forest girdling shows that current photosynthesis drives soil respiration. Nature, 411, 789792.
  • Hooper, D.U., Chapin, F.S., Ewel, J.J., Hector, A., Inchausti, P., Lavorel, S. et al. 2005. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: a consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs, 75, 335.
  • Horwath, W.R., Paul, E.A., Harris, D., Norton, J., Jagger, L. & Horton, K.A. 1996. Defining a realistic control for the chloroform fumigation-incubation method using microscopic counting and C-14-substrates. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 76, 459467.
  • Huston, M.A. 1997. Hidden treatments in ecological experiments: re-evaluating the ecosystem function of biodiversity. Oecologia, 110, 449460.
  • Huston, M.A. & McBride, A.C. 2002. Evaluating the relative strengths of biotic versus abiotic controls on ecosystem processes. In: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives (eds M.Loreau, S.Naeem & P.Inchausti), pp. 4760. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Huston, M.A. Aarssen, L.W., Austin, M.P., Cade, B.S., Fridley, J.D., Garnier, E. et al. 2000. No consistent effect of plant diversity on productivity. Science, 289, 1255a.
  • Ingham, R.E., Trofymow, J.A., Ingham, E.R. & Coleman, D.C. 1985. Interactions of bacteria, fungi, and their nematode grazers – effects on nutrient cycling and plant-growth. Ecological Monographs, 55, 119140.
  • IPCC 2000. Land Use, Land Use Change, and Forestry. Summary for Policymakers. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • IPCC 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Core Writing Team, R.K.Pachaur & A.Reisinger), IPCC, Geneva.
  • Johnson, D., Krsek, M., Wellington, E.M.H., Stott, A.W., Cole, L., Bardgett, R.D. et al. 2005. Soil invertebrates disrupt carbon flow through fungal networks. Science, 309, 1047.
  • Jones, T.H., Thompson, L.J., Lawton, J.H., Bezemer, T.M., Bardgett, R.D., Blackburn, T.M. et al. 1998. Impacts of rising atmospheric carbon dioxide on model terrestrial ecosystems. Science, 280, 441443.
  • Kennedy, T.A., Naeem, S., Howe, K.M., Knops, J.M.H., Tilman, D. & Reich, P. 2002. Biodiversity as a barrier to ecological invasion. Nature, 417, 636638.
  • Klamer, M., Roberts, M.S., Levine, L.H., Drake, B.G. & Garland, J.L. 2002. Influence of elevated CO2 on the fungal community in a coastal scrub oak forest soil investigated with terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Applied & Environmental Microbiology, 68, 43704376.
  • Laakso, J. & Setälä, H. 1999. Sensitivity of primary production to changes in the architecture of belowground food webs. Oikos, 87, 5764.
  • Lawton, J.H. & May, R.M. 1995. Extinction Rates. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Lepš, J., Brown, V.K., Len, T.A.D., Gormsen, D., Hedlund, K., Kailova, J. et al. 2001. Separating the chance effect from other diversity effects in the functioning of plant communities. Oikos, 92, 123134.
  • Liebich, J., Schloter, M., Schaffer, A., Vereecken, H. & Burauel, P. 2007. Degradation and humification of maize straw in soil microcosms inoculated with simple and complex microbial communities. European Journal of Soil Science, 58, 141151.
  • Liiri, M., Setala, H., Haimi, J., Pennanen, T. & Fritze, H. 2002. Relationship between soil microarthropod species diversity and plant growth does not change when the system is disturbed. Oikos, 96, 137149.
  • Lindberg, N., Engtsson, J.B. & Persson, T. 2002. Effects of experimental irrigation and drought on the composition and diversity of soil fauna in a coniferous stand. Journal of Applied Ecology, 39, 924936.
  • Loreau, M., Naeem, S., Inchausti, P., Bengtsson, J., Grime, J.P., Hector, A. et al. 2001. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning: current knowledge and future challenges. Science, 294, 804808.
  • Masai, E., Katayama, Y. & Fukuda, M. 2007. Genetic and biochemical investigations on bacterial catabolic pathways for lignin-derived aromatic compounds. Bioscience Biotechnology & Biochemistry, 71, 115.
  • Matos, A., Kerkhof, L. & Garland, J.L. 2005. Effects of microbial community diversity on the survival of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the wheat rhizosphere. Microbial Ecology, 49, 257264.
  • McGrady-Steed, J., Harris, P.M. & Morin, P.J. 1997. Biodiversity regulates ecosystem predictability. Nature, 390, 162165.
  • Meyer, M.C., Paschke, M.W., McLendon, T. & Price, D. 1998. Decreases in soil microbial function and functional diversity in response to depleted uranium. Journal of Environmental Quality, 27, 13061311.
  • Mikola, J. & Setälä, H. 1998. Relating species diversity to ecosystem functioning: mechanistic backgrounds and experimental approach with a decomposer food web. Oikos, 83, 180194.
  • Mikola, J., Bardgett, R.D. & Hedlund, K. 2002. Biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and soil decomposer food webs. In: Biodiversity and Ecosystem Functioning: Synthesis and Perspectives (eds M.Loreau, S.Naeem & P.Inchausti), pp. 169180. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
  • Milcu, A., Partsch, S., Scherber, C., Weisser, W.W. & Scheu, S. 2008. Earthworms and legumes control litter decomposition in a plant diversity gradient. Ecology, 89, 18721882.
  • Millennium Ecosystem Assessment 2005. Ecosystem and Human Well-being: Biodiversity Synthesis. World Resources Institute, Washington, D.C.
  • Mokany, K., Ash, J. & Roxburgh, S. 2008. Functional identity is more important than diversity in influencing ecosystem processes in a temperate native grassland. Journal of Ecology, 96, 884893.
  • Naeem, S. & Li, S.B. 1998. A more reliable design for biodiversity study? – reply. Nature, 394, 30.
  • Nannipieri, P., Ascher, J., Ceccerini, M.T., Landi, L., Pietramellara, G. & Renella, G. 2003. Microbial diversity and soil functions. European Journal of Soil Science, 54, 655670.
  • Nepstad, D.C., Stickler, C.M., Soares, B. & Merry, F. 2008. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B–Biological Sciences, 363, 17371746.
  • Newell, K. 1984a. Interaction between two decomposer basidiomycetes and a collembolan under Sitka spruce: distribution, abundance and selective grazing. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 16, 227234.
  • Newell, K. 1984b. Interaction between two decomposer basidiomycetes and a collembolan under Sitka spruce: grazing and its potential effects on fungal distribution and litter decomposition. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 16, 235239.
  • Orwin, K.H., Wardle, D.A. & Greenfield, L.G. 2006. Ecological consequences of carbon substrate identity and diversity in a laboratory study. Ecology, 87, 580593.
  • Ostle, N.J., Smith, P., Fisher, R., Woodward, F.I., Fisher, J.B., Smith, J.U. et al. 2009. Integrating plant–soil interactions into global carbon cycle models. Journal of Ecology, 97, 851863.
  • Parrent, J.L., Morris, W.F. & Vilgalys, R. 2006. CO2-enrichment and nutrient availability alter ectomycorrhizal fungal communities. Ecology, 87, 22782287.
  • Paul, E.A. 2007. Soil Microbiology, Ecology, and Biogeochemistry, 3rd edn. Academic Press, Amsterdam.
  • Postma-Blaauw, M.B., Bloem, J., Faber, J.H., van Groenigen, J.W., de Goede, R.G.M. & Brussaard, L. 2006. Earthworm species composition affects the soil bacterial community and net nitrogen mineralization. Pedobiologia, 50, 243256.
  • Powers, J.S., Montgomery, R.A., Adair, E.C., Brearley, F.Q., DeWalt, S.J., Castanho, C.T. et al. Decomposition in tropical forests: a pan-tropical study of the effects of litter type, litter placement and mesofaunal exclusion across a precipitation gradient. Journal of Ecology, 97, 801811.
  • Raich, J.W. & Potter, C.S. 1995. Global patterns of carbon-dioxide emissions from soils. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 9, 2336.
  • Romani, A.M., Fischer, H., Mille-Lindblom, C. & Tranvik, L.J. 2006. Interactions of bacteria and fungi on decomposing litter: differential extracellular enzyme activities. Ecology, 10, 25592569.
  • Ruess, L., Schmidt, I.K., Michelsen, A. & Jonasson, S. 2001. Manipulations of a microbial based soil food web at two arctic sites – evidence of species redundancy among the nematode fauna? Applied Soil Ecology, 17, 1930.
  • Rygiewicz, P.T., Martin, K.J. & Tuininga, A.R. 2000. Morphotype community structure of ectomycorrhizas on Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. Franco) seedlings grown under elevated atmospheric CO2 and temperature. Oecologia, 124, 299308.
  • Salonius, P.O. 1981. Metabolic capabilities of forest soil microbial populations with reduced species diversity. Soil Biology & Biodiversity, 13, 110.
  • Scheu, S. & Schulz, E. 1996. Secondary succession, soil formation and development of a diverse community of oribatids and saprophagous soil macro-invertebrates. Biodiversity and Conservation, 5, 235250.
  • Scheu, S., Schlitt, N., Tiunov, A.V., Newington, J.E. & Jones, T.H. 2002. Effects of the presence and community composition of earthworms on microbial community functioning. Oecologia, 133, 254260.
  • Seastedt, T.R. 1984. The role of microarthropods in decomposition and mineralization processes. Annual Review of Entomology, 29, 2546.
  • Setälä, H. & McLean, M.A. 2004. Decomposition rate of organic substrates in relation to the species diversity of soil saprophytic fungi. Oecologia, 139, 98107.
  • Setälä, H., Marshall, V. & Trofymow, T. 1996. Influence of body size of soil fauna on litter decomposition and 15N uptake by poplar in a pot trial. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 28, 16611675.
  • Setälä, H., Berg, M.P. & Jones, T.H. 2005. Trophic structure and functional redundancy in soil communities. In: Biological Diversity and Function in Soils (eds R.D.Bardgett, M.B.Usher & D.W.Hopkins), pp. 236249. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Sjursen, H., Michelsen, A. & Jonasson, S. 2005. Effects of long-term soil warming and fertilisation on microarthropod abundances in three sub-arctic ecosystems. Applied Soil Ecology, 30, 148161.
  • Smith, P., Andrén, O., Brussaard, L., Dangerfield, M., Ekschmitt, K., Lavelle, P. et al. 1998. Soil biota and global change at the ecosystem level: describing soil biota in mathematical models. Global Change Biology, 4, 773784.
  • St John, M.G., Wall, D.H. & Hunt, H.W. 2006. Are soil mite assemblages structured by the identity of native and invasive alien grasses? Ecology, 87, 13141324.
  • Subke, J.A., Inglima, I. & Cotrufo, M.F. 2006. Trends and methodological impacts in soil CO2 efflux partitioning: a metaanalytical review. Global Change Biology, 12, 921943.
  • Swift, M.J., Heal, O.W. & Anderson, J.M. 1979. Decomposition in Terrestrial Ecosystems. Blackwell, Oxford.
  • Swift, M.J., Andrén, O., Brussaard, L.M.B., Couteaux, M.M., Ekschmitt, K., Kjoller, A. et al. 1998. Global change, soil biodiversity, and nitrogen cycling in terrestrial ecosystems: three case studies. Global Change Biology, 4, 729743.
  • Swift, M.J., Izac, A.-M.N. & van Noordwijk, M. 2004. Biodiversity and ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes – are we asking the right questions? Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 104, 113134.
  • Tiunov, A.V. & Scheu, S. 2005. Facilitative interactions rather than resource partitioning drive diversity-functioning relationships in laboratory fungal communities. Ecology Letters, 8, 618625.
  • Toljander, Y.K., Lindahl, B.D., Holmer, L. & Högberg, N.O.S. 2006. Environmental fluctuations facilitate species co-existence and increase decomposition in communities of wood decay fungi. Oecologia, 148, 625631.
  • Torsvik, V., Goksøyr, J. & Daae, F.L. 1990. High diversity in DNA of soil bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 56, 782787.
  • van de Bund, C.F. 1970. Influence of crop and tillage on mites and springtails in arable soil. Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 18, 308314.
  • Wall, D.H. 2004. Sustaining Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in Soils and Sediments. Island Press, Washington.
  • Wall, D.H. 2007. Global change tipping points: above- and below-ground biotic interactions in a low diversity ecosystem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences, 362, 22912306.
  • Wall, D.H., Bradford, M.A., St. John, M.G., Trofymow, J.A., Behan-Pelletier, V., Bignell, D.E. et al. 2008. Global decomposition experiment shows soil animal impacts on decomposition are climate dependent. Global Change Biology, 14, 26612677.
  • Wardle, D.A. 1995. Impacts of disturbance on detritus food webs in agro-ecosystems of contrasting tillage and weed management practices. Advances in Ecological Research, 26, 105185.
  • Wardle, D.A. 1998. A more reliable design for biodiversity study? Nature, 394, 30.
  • Wardle, D.A. 2002. Communities and Ecosystems: Linking the Aboveground and Belowground Components. Princeton University Press, Princeton.
  • Wardle, D.A. 2006. The influence of biotic interactions on soil biodiversity. Ecology Letters, 9, 870886.
  • Wardle, D.A., Bardgett, R.D., Klironomos, J.N., Setala, H., van der Putten, W.H. & Wall, D.H. 2004. Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota. Science, 304, 16291633.
  • Wertz, S., Degrange, V., Prosser, J.I., Poly, F., Commeaux, C., Freitag, T. et al. 2006. Maintenance of soil functioning following erosion of microbial diversity. Environmental Microbiology, 8, 21622169.
  • Wittebolle, L., Marzorati, M., Clement, L., Balloi, A., Daffonchio, D., Heylen, K. et al. 2009. Initial community evenness favours functionality under selective stress. Nature, 458, 623626.
  • Wohl, D.L., Arora, S. & Gladstone, J.R. 2004. Functional redundancy supports biodiversity and ecosystem function in a closed and constant environment. Ecology, 85, 15341540.
  • Wu, T., Ayres, E., Li, G., Bardgett, R.D., Wall, D.H. & Garey, J.R. 2009. Molecular profiling of soil animal diversity in natural ecosystems: incongruence of molecular and morphological results. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41, 849857.
  • Yachi, S. & Loreau, M. 1999. Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity in a fluctuating environment: the insurance hypothesis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 96, 14631468.
  • Yang, X. & Chen, J. 2009. Plant litter quality influences the contribution of soil fauna to litter decomposition in humid tropical forests, southwestern China. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 41, 910918.