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Supporting Information

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Figure S1. Cumulative respired CO2 (±SE) at four temperatures of the chemical recalcitrance experiment (n = 4). Day 0 is the first day after the 11-day pre-incubation. Cel = cellulose and Lig = lignin.

Figure S2. Calculated Q10 (±SE) for each treatment of chemical recalcitrance experiment (experiment 1) at three different temperatures (2–12, 12–22 and 22–32°C) (n = 4). Day 0 is the first day after pre-incubation. Cel = cellulose and Lig = lignin.

Figure S3. Cumulative respired CO2 (±SE) at four temperatures of the clay-mineral composition experiment (experiment 2) (n = 4). Day 0 is the first day after pre-incubation. K = kaolinite and M = montmorillonite.

Figure S4. Calculated Q10 (±SE) for each treatment of clay-mineral composition experiment (experiment 2) at three different temperatures (2–12, 12–22 and 22–32°C) (n = 4). Day 0 is the first day after pre-incubation. K = kaolinite and M = montmorillonite.

Figure S5. Percentage of respired C versus CO2 production rate of experiment 1 (chemical recalcitrance experiment). The vertical solid lines indicate the percentage of C respired at pre-incubation periods. The dashed vertical lines indicate the percentage of yeast extract/starch C, which was possibly all respired during the pre-incubation period.

Figure S6. Percentage of respired C after pre-incubation versus Q10 values of experiment 1 (chemical recalcitrance experiment). Only 6% of C was respired in treatment 4.2% Lig:0% Cel, making it impossible to compare Q10 values between treatments beyond the point of 6%.

Figure S7. Percentage of respired C versus CO2 production rate of experiment 2 (clay-mineral composition experiment). The vertical solid lines indicate the percentage of C respired at pre-incubation periods. The vertical dashed lines indicate the percentage of yeast extract/starch C, which was possibly respired during the pre-incubation period, except for the treatment with 30% K:0% M.

Figure S8. Percentage of respired C after pre-incubation versus Q10 values of experiment 2 (clay-mineral composition experiment). Only 6% of C was respired in treatment with 30% K:0% M, and it again is impossible to compare Q10 values between treatments beyond the point of 6%.

Figure S9. The Q10 values calculated when the same amount of C (6%) was respired after pre-incubation (1 and 2), compared with the Q10 values calculated at a certain time (day 30, Figures 1d and 2d in the paper). We choose 6% because this is the largest amount of C respired in treatments 4.2% Lig:0% Cel and 30% K:0% M. Note that the trend is similar between 1 and 1D, and between 2 and 2D. That is, this alternative approach for Q10 calculation does not alter our conclusions, at least for the short-term incubations. Because of slow CO2 production rates in some treatments, it is not possible for us to create a similar comparison for the longer-term incubations.

Table S1. Carbon masses and CO2-C production during experiment 1 (chemical recalcitrance experiment). Standard errors are shown in the parenthesis (n = 4).

Table S2. Carbon masses and CO2-C production during experiment 2 (clay-mineral composition experiment). Standard errors are shown in the parenthesis (n = 4).

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