Transport and environmental temperature variability of eggs and larvae of the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) in the western North Pacific estimated via numerical particle-tracking experiments




Numerical particle-tracking experiments were performed to investigate the transport and variability in environmental temperature experienced by eggs and larvae of Pacific stocks of the Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and Japanese sardine (Sardinops melanostictus) using high-resolution outputs of the Ocean General Circulation Model for the Earth Simulator (OFES) and the observed distributions of eggs collected from 1978 to 2004. The modeled anchovy individuals tend to be trapped in coastal waters or transported to the Kuroshio–Oyashio transition region. In contrast, a large proportion of the sardines are transported to the Kuroshio Extension. The egg density-weighted mean environmental temperature until day 30 of the experiment was 20–24°C for the anchovy and 17–20°C for the sardine, which can be explained by spawning areas and seasons, and interannual oceanic variability. Regression analyses revealed that the contribution of environmental temperature to the logarithm of recruitment per spawning (expected to have a negative relationship with the mean mortality coefficient) was significant for both the anchovy and sardine, especially until day 30, which can be regarded as the initial stages of their life cycles. The relationship was quadratic for the anchovy, with an optimal temperature of 21–22°C, and linear for the sardine, with a negative coefficient. Differences in habitat areas and temperature responses between the sardine and anchovy are suggested to be important factors in controlling the dramatic out-of-phase fluctuations of these species.