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SUMMARY 1. The range of factors which may influence the wide variation in the structure of pond communities is reviewed.

2. Factors explaining the variation in numbers of macro invertebrate and macrophyte taxa are investigated, using multiple regression analysis, for a group of ponds in which biogeographical effects are likely to be minimal.

3. Numbers of macro invertebrate taxa in these ponds are highly correlated with pH and probably, therefore, with other associated aspects of water chemistry,

4. Many invertebrate taxa, from species to entire phyla, were not found below pH 5.5, but few characteristically‘acidophilic’taxa were apparent.

5. Details of species composition of the macro invertebrate fauna differ widely even between ponds of similar pH.

6. The diversity and composition of macrophyte communities are not adequately predicted by any of the factors investigated.