• food webs;
  • invasion;
  • macroinvertebrates;
  • Orconectes rusticus;
  • rusty crayfish;
  • scaling issues


1. Biological invasions are widely recognised as a significant component of human-caused environmental change and a primary threat to native biodiversity. The negative impacts of species invasions are particularly evident for freshwater crayfish faunas.

2. This study provides novel insight into the ecological effects of native and non-native crayfish on zoobenthic communities (with emphasis on the non-native rusty crayfish, Orconectes rusticus) across broad scales by combining a meta-analysis of small-scale experimental studies with a long-term observational study conducted over a 24 year period in Sparkling Lake, Wisconsin, U.S.A. (46°00′N, 89°42′W).

3. The meta-analysis summarised quantitatively the results of cage experiments for seven species of crayfish spanning four continents. We found that total zoobenthos densities (primarily Gastropoda and Diptera) were significantly lower in treatments containing crayfish relative to controls; a result that was significant for non-native crayfish but not for crayfish in their native range, perhaps owing to a small sample size. In contrast to other species, rusty crayfish were also negatively associated with Ephemeroptera.

4. Results from the time series analysis comparing temporal trends in rusty crayfish and invertebrate abundances from Sparkling Lake were consistent with the findings from the meta-analysis. Rusty crayfish were negatively correlated with the abundance of total zoobenthos, Diptera, Ephemeroptera and Odonata, as well as families of Trichoptera.

5. By coupling the results from short and long-term research, our study offers greater insight into the nature of crayfish-invertebrate interactions in aquatic systems, revealing consistent effects of invasive crayfish on native fauna. The control and management of invasive species is facilitated by the knowledge that well executed small-scale studies may be extrapolated to understand larger-scale ecological interactions.