Taxon-specific reaction norms to predator cues in a hybrid Daphnia complex


Justyna Wolinska, Department of Biology, Indiana University, 1001 East 3rd Street, Bloomington, IN 47405, U.S.A.


1. Previous studies have shown that interspecific hybridisation is common among taxa from the Daphnia galeata/hyalina/cucullata species complex. We investigated the influence of predator kairomones on the morphology and life histories of nine clones belonging to three taxa (pure D. galeata, F1 hybrids between D. galeata and D. hyalina, and backcrossed D. hyalina) of this species complex. Predators exerting positive (fish) and negative (Chaoborus larvae) size-selective predation were tested.

2. The most responsive traits were size at maturity and size of neonates. Despite large between-clone variation, discriminant analysis revealed that the three taxa were distinct from each other in key life-history traits. F1 hybrids did not react in an intermediate way compared to the other taxa: the multivariate distances between F1 hybrids and either taxon were larger than between pure D. galeata and backcrossed D. hyalina.

3. The average plasticity (calculated across all traits) was similar for all three taxa. With regard to the size at maturity and neonate body size, the strength of the response was a function of the intrinsic values of these traits expressed in the control. For example, for size at maturity, smaller individuals showed a significantly stronger reaction to Chaoborus kairomones than larger ones.

4. Finally, we monitored seasonal changes in body size, egg number and population density of pure D. galeata and F1 hybrids in Greifensee (Switzerland). The two taxa experienced similar seasonal changes in body size but, on some sampling dates, they differed in mean egg number. The observed seasonal changes in Daphnia body size were consistent with what would be expected if the predator assemblage shifted from fish to Chaoborus over the course of the summer. The fluctuations in the frequencies of Daphnia taxa, however, were not related to seasonal variation in Daphnia body size.

5. Experimental data suggest that temporally heterogeneous predation regimes might be an important condition stabilising the co-occurrence of Daphnia hybrids with parental taxa. Predation regimes, however, cannot solely explain dynamic changes in taxon frequency in Greifensee.