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Figure S1. Colour changes of the Cladophora turf at one site monitored over time in 2006 with a robotic camera. The red arrow points to the small proliferation growing from a bedrock ledge on the upper part of the photograph. The maximal elongation of the attached turf occurred on 26 June; yellow floating mats appeared on 16 July, 2006 and turned rusty by 20 July, deepening in rusty colour by 6 August.

Figure S2. Low aerial photographs with a pole mounted-camera (right) of algal proliferations at four sites on 27 June, 2007. (a) GirlyMon Pool. Flow is from top to bottom, at the lower left of the photo, the green patch is an Oedogonium – Mougeotia proliferation; the rust coloured turf along the right hand third of the photo is Epithemia-covered Cladophora; (b) downstream tail of McKinley Pool and head of Jane’s Riffle in upper right of photograph, above sedge tussock. Flow is from bottom to top of photograph. The proliferation of green Cladophora here is lightly colonized primarily by Cocconeis; (c) Upper Skunk Pool; flow is from bottom to top of picture. From river left, the dry cobble bar borders pale rusty Cladophora (colonized primarily by Cocconeis, Achnanthidium and Rhoiciosphenia but with incipient colonization by Epithemia spp., the centre patch is yellow green Cladophora heavily colonized by non-epithemiacean diatoms (primarily Cocconeis, Achnanthidium and Rhoiciosphenia). On river right, pale rusty Cladophora colonized primarily by these non-Rhopalodiaceaen diatoms but with incipient colonization by Epithemia spp. Epiphyte succession may be more advanced on Cladophora along slower-flowing river margins where host growth is reduced in low flow. Shadows preclude colour analysis along the right-hand margin of the photograph.

Figure S3. Emergence traps used in South Fork Eel River. Traps are 25.4 cm diameter PVC pipes with 4 columns of 6 cm diameter holes cut along the sides and covered with 0.3 mm mesh. Clear PVC sheets with ‘Stickem Special’ odourless glue cover the tops of traps to capture emerging insects.

Figure S4. Emergence sampled over 24 h from (a) Oedogonium, (b) green Cladophora, (c) rusty Cladophora, (d) yellow Cladophora and (e) a field photograph showing white adult ceratopogonid midges recently emerged from a yellow Cladophora mat (white vial cap is 14 mm in diameter).

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