1. River restoration has received considerable attention, with much recent focus on restoring river hydromorphology to improve impoverished aquatic communities. However, we still lack a clear understanding of the response of aquatic biota to river restoration.
2. We studied the effects of hydromorphological restoration on benthic invertebrate assemblages in 25 river sites in Germany using standardised methods. Restoration efforts were primarily aimed to restore habitat heterogeneity; correspondingly, habitat diversity increased at most sites.
3. Similarity of benthic invertebrate assemblages between restored and unrestored river sections was low (mean similarity was 0.32 for Jaccard and 0.46 for Sørensen). Community-based metrics, such as the percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera taxa, also differed between restored and unrestored sections.
4. Only three of the 25 restored sections were classified as having ‘good ecological quality’ class according to the European Water Framework Directive criteria; hence, poor water quality is probably one factor impeding recolonisation.
5. Our results show that isolated restoration measures do not necessarily result in positive effects on aquatic biota and that better understanding of the interconnectedness within a catchment is required before we can adequately predict biotic responses to structural river restoration.
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