SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Afton, A.D. & Paulus, S.L. (1992) Incubation and brood care. In: Ecology and Management of Breeding Waterfowl (eds B.D.J.Batt, A.D.Afton, M.G.Anderson et al.), pp. 62108. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, MN, USA.
  • Aldrich, T.W. & Raveling, D.G. (1983) Effects of experience and body weight on incubation behavior of Canada geese. Auk 100, 670679.
  • Anderson, V.R. & Alisauskas, R.T. (2001) Egg size, body size, locomotion, and feeding performance in captive king eider ducklings. Condor 103, 195199.
  • Anderson, V.R. & Alisauskas, R.T. (2002) Composition and growth of king eider ducklings in relation to egg size. Auk 119, 6270.
  • Angilletta, M.J., Winters, R.S. & Dunham, A.E. (2000) Thermal effects on the energetics of lizard embryos: implications for hatchling phenotypes. Ecology 81, 29572968.
  • Ar, A. & Sidis, Y. (2002) Nest microclimate during incubation. In: Avian Incubation: Behavior, Environment, and Evolution (ed. D.C.Deeming), pp. 143160. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Arnold, T.W., Rohwer, F.C. & Armstrong, T. (1987) Egg viability, nest predation, and the adaptive significance of clutch size in prairie ducks. American Naturalist 130, 643653.
  • Ashmore, G.M. & Janzen, F.J. (2003) Phenotypic variation in smooth softshell turtles (Apalone mutica) from eggs incubated in constant versus fluctuating temperatures. Oecologia 134, 182188.
  • Badyaev, A.V., Hill, G.E., Beck, M.L. et al. (2002) Sex-biased hatching order and adaptive population divergence in a passerine bird. Science 295, 316318.
  • Bellrose, F.C. & Holm, D.J. (1994) Ecology and Management of the Wood Duck. Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA, USA.
  • Bernardo, J. (1996) Maternal effects in animal ecology. American Zoologist 36, 83105.
  • Bolton, M. (1991) Determinants of chick survival in the lesser black-backed gull: relative contributions of egg size and parental quality. Journal of Animal Ecology 60, 949960.
  • Booth, D.T. (1987) Effect of temperature on development of mallee fowl Leipoa ocellata eggs. Physiological Zoology 60, 437445.
  • Booth, D.T. (2000) Incubation of eggs of the Australian broad-shelled turtle, Chelodina expansa (Testudinata: Chelidae), at different temperatures: effects on pattern of oxygen consumption and hatchling morphology. Australian Journal of Zoology 48, 369378.
  • Booth, D.T. & Jones, D.N. (2002) Underground nesting in megapodes. In: Avian Incubation: Behavior, Environment, and Evolution (ed. D.C.Deeming), pp. 192–206. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Booth, D.T., Thompson, M.B. & Herring, S. (2000) How incubation temperature influences the physiology and growth of embryonic lizards. Journal of Comparative Physiology B 170, 269276.
  • Brown, G.P. & Shine, R. (2004) Maternal nest-site choice and offspring fitness in a tropical snake (Tropidonophis mairii), Colubridae. Ecology 85, 16271634.
  • Burger, J. (1998) Effects of incubation temperature on hatchling pine snakes: implications for survival. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 43, 1118.
  • Cagle, K.D., Packard, G.C., Miller, K. & Packard, M.J. (1993) Effects of microclimate in natural nests on development of embryonic painted turtles, Chrysemys picta. Functional Ecology 7, 653660.
  • Carey, C. (1980) The ecology of avian incubation. Bioscience 30, 819824.
  • Clawson, R.L., Hartman, G.W. & Fredrickson, L.H. (1979) Dump nesting in a Missouri wood duck population. Journal of Wildlife Management 43, 347355.
  • Conway, C.J. & Martin, T.E. (2000) Evolution of passerine incubation behavior: influence of food, temperature, and nest predation. Evolution 54, 670685.
  • Dawson, R.D. & Clark, R.G. (1996) Effects of variation in egg size and hatching date on survival of lesser scaup Aythya affinis ducklings. Ibis 138, 693699.
  • Deeming, D.C. (2002a) Importance and evolution of incubation in avian reproduction. In: Avian Incubation: Behavior, Environment, and Evolution (ed. D.C.Deeming), pp. 17. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Deeming, D.C., ed. (2002b) Avian Incubation: Behavior, Environment, and Evolution. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Deeming, D.C. (2002c) Behavior patterns during incubation. In: Avian Incubation: Behavior, Environment, and Evolution (ed. D.C.Deeming), pp. 6387. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Deeming, D.C. & Ferguson, M.W.J. (1991) Physiological effects of incubation temperature on embryonic development in reptiles and birds. In: Egg Incubation: Its Effects on Embryonic Development in Birds and Reptiles (eds D.C.Deeming & M.W.J.Ferguson), pp. 147171. Cambridge University Press, New York.
  • Dobush, G.R., Ankney, C.D. & Krementz, D.G. (1985) The effect of apparatus, extraction time, and solvent type on lipid extractions of snow geese. Canadian Journal of Zoology 63, 19171920.
  • Drobney, R.D. (1980) Reproductive bioenergetics of wood ducks. Auk 97, 480490.
  • Folk, T.H. & Hepp, G.R. (2003) Effects of habitat use and movement patterns on incubation behavior of female wood ducks (Aix sponsa) in southeast Alabama. Auk 120, 11591167.
  • Gorman, H.E. & Nager, R.G. (2004) Prenatal developmental conditions have long-term effects on offspring fecundity. Proceeding of the Royal Society of London, B 271, 19231928.
  • Göth, A. & Booth, D.T. (2005) Temperature-dependent sex ratio in a bird. Biology Letters 1, 3133.
  • Göth, A. & Evans, C.S. (2004) Egg size predicts motor performance and postnatal weight gain of Australian brush-turkey (Alectura lathami) hatchlings. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82, 972979.
  • Hanson, H.C. (1954) Criteria of age of incubated mallard, wood duck, and bob-white quail eggs. Auk 71, 267272.
  • Hepp, G.R. (2004) Onset of incubation in wood ducks. Condor 106, 182186.
  • Hepp, G.R., Stangohr, D.J., Baker, L.A. & Kennamer, R.A. (1987) Factors affecting variation in the egg and duckling components of wood ducks. Auk 104, 435443.
  • Hepp, G.R., Kennamer, R.A., Harvey, I.V. & W.F. (1989) Recruitment and natal philopatry of wood ducks. Ecology 70, 897903.
  • Janzen, F.J. (1993) An experimental analysis of natural selection on body size of hatchling turtles. Ecology 74, 332341.
  • Kennamer, R.A. & Hepp, G.R. (2000) Integration of research with long-term monitoring: breeding wood ducks on the Savannah River Site. Studies in Avian Biology 21, 3949.
  • Kennamer, R.A., Harvey, I.V., W.F. & Hepp, G.R. (1990) Embryonic development and nest attentiveness of wood ducks during egg laying. Condor 92, 587592.
  • Kennamer, R.A. Alsum, S.K. & Colwell, S.V. (1997) Composition of wood duck eggs in relation to egg size, laying sequence, and skipped days of laying. Auk 114, 479487.
  • Lindström, J. (1999) Early development and fitness in birds and mammals. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 14, 343348.
  • Lombardo, M.P. Bosman, R.M. Faro, C.A. Houtteman, S.G. & Kluisza, T.S. (1995) Effect of feathers as nest insulation on incubation behavior and reproductive performance of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor). Auk 112, 973981.
  • Manlove, C.A. & Hepp, G.R. (1998) Effects of mate removal on incubation behavior and reproductive success of female wood ducks. Condor 100, 688693.
  • Manlove, C.A. & Hepp, G.R. (2000) Patterns of nest attendance in female wood ducks. Condor 102, 286291.
  • Martin, T.E. (1992) Interaction of nest predation and food limitation in reproductive strategies. Current Ornithology 9, 163197.
  • Metcalfe, N.B. & Monaghan, P. (2001) Compensation for a bad start: grow now, pay later? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 254260.
  • Mousseau, T.A. & Fox, C.W. (1998) The adaptive significance of maternal effects. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13, 403407.
  • Olson, J.M. (1994) The ontogeny of shivering thermogenesis in the red-winged blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus). Journal of Experimental Biology 191, 5988.
  • Pelayo, J.T. & Clark, R.G. (2003) Consequences of egg size for offspring survival: a cross-fostering experiment in ruddy ducks (Oxyura jamaicensis). Auk 120, 384393.
  • Price, T. (1998) Maternal and paternal effects in birds. In: Maternal Effects as Adaptations (eds T.A.Mousseau & C.W.J.Fox), pp. 202226. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Reid, J.M. Monaghan, P. & Nager, R.G. (2002a) Incubation and the costs of reproduction. In: Avian Incubation: Behavior, Environment, and Evolution (ed. D.C.Deeming), pp. 314325. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Reid, J.M. Monaghan, P. & Ruxton, G.D. (2002b) Males matter: the occurrence and consequences of male incubation in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 51, 255261.
  • Rhymer, J.M. (1988) The effect of egg size variability on thermoregulation of mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) offspring and its implications for survival. Oecologia 75, 2024.
  • SAS Institute Inc. (2000) SAS Onlinedoc, Version 8. SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA.
  • Semel, B. & Sherman, P.W. (1986) Dynamics of nest parasitism in wood ducks. Auk 103, 813816.
  • Shine, R., Elphick, M.J. & Harlow, P.S. (1997) The influence of natural incubation environments on the phenotypic traits of hatchling lizards. Ecology 78, 25592568.
  • Strausberger, B.M. (1998) Temperature, egg mass, and incubation time: a comparison of brown-headed cowbirds and red-winged blackbirds. Auk 115, 843850.
  • Tombre, I.M. & Erikstad, K.E. (1996) An experimental study of incubation effort in high-Arctic barnacle geese. Journal of Animal Ecology 65, 325331.
  • Visser, G.H. & Ricklefs, R.E. (1995) Relationship between body composition and homeothermy in neonates of precocial and semiprecocial birds. Auk 112, 192200.
  • Vleck, C.M. & Vleck, D. (1996) Embryonic energetics. In: Avian Energetics and Nutritional Ecology (ed. C.Carey), pp. 417460. Chapman & Hall, New York.
  • Vleck, C.M., Vleck, D. & Seymour, R.S. (1984) Energetics of embryonic development in the megapode birds, mallee fowl Leipoa ocellata and brush turkey Alectura lathami. Physiological Zoology 57, 444456.
  • Webb, D.R. (1987) Thermal tolerance of avian embryos: a review. Condor 89, 874898.
  • Weller, M.W. (1956) A simple field candler for waterfowl eggs. Journal of Wildlife Management 20, 111113.
  • White, F.N. & Kinney, J.L. (1974) Avian incubation. Science 186, 107115.
  • Williams, T.D. (1994) Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness. Biological Review 68, 3559.
  • Zicus, M.C., Hennes, S.K. & Riggs, M.R. (1995) Common goldeneye nest attendance patterns. Condor 97, 461472.