SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Benkman, C.W. (1995a) Wind dispersal capacity of pine seeds and the evolution of different seed dispersal modes in pines. Oikos 73, 221224.
  • Benkman, C.W. (1995b) The impact of tree squirrels (Tamiasciurus) on limber pine seed dispersal adaptation. Evolution 49, 585592.
  • Benkman, C.W. (1999) The selection mosaic and diversifying coevolution between crossbills and lodgepole pine. American Naturalist 153, S75S91.
  • Benkman, C.W., Balda, R.P. & Smith, C.C. (1984) Adaptations for seed dispersal and the compromises due to seed predation in limber pine. Ecology 65, 632642.
  • Benkman, C.W., Parchman, T.L., Favis, A. & Siepielski, A.M. (2003) Reciprocal selection causes a coevolutionary arms race between crossbills and lodgepole pine. American Naturalist 162, 182194.
  • Brown, D.E. (1984) Arizona's Tree Squirrels. Arizona Game and Fish Department, Phoenix, AZ, USA.
  • Burns, R.M. & Honkala, B.H. (1990) Silvics of North America: 1. Conifers. Agriculture Handbook 654. US Department of Agriculture Forest Service, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Cain, M.L., Milligan, B.G. & Stand, A. (2000) Long-distance seed dispersal in plant populations. American Journal of Botany 87, 12171227.
  • Caswell, H.R., Lensink, R. & Neubert, M.G. (2003) Demography and dispersal: life table response experiments for invasion speed. Ecology, 84, 19681978.
  • Christensen, K.M., Whitham, T.G. & Balda, R.P. (1991) Discrimination among pinyon pine trees by Clark's Nutcracker: effects of cone crop size and cone characters. Oecologia 86, 402407.
  • Elliott, P.F. (1974) Evolutionary response of plants to seed-eaters: Tamiasciurus predation on lodgepole pine. Evolution 28, 221231.
  • Fedriani, J.M., Rey, P., Garrido, J.L., Guitian, J., Herrera, C.M., Mendrano, M., Sanchez-Lafuente, M.A. & Cerda, X. (2004) Geographical variation in the potential of mice to constrain an ant–seed dispersal mutualism. Oikos 105, 181191.
  • Fisher, J.T. & Wilkinson, L. (2005) The response of mammals to forest fire and timber harvest in the North American boreal forest. Mammal Review 35, 5181.
  • Gernandt, D., López, S.G., Ortiz, G., Garcia, S. & Liston, A. (2005) Phylogeny and classification of Pinus. Taxon 54, 2942.
  • Herrera, C.M. (1985) Determinants of plant–animal coevolution: the case of mutualistic dispersal of seeds by vertebrates. Oikos 44, 132141.
  • Herrera, C.M. (2002) Seed dispersal by vertebrates. Plant–Animal Interactions: An Evolutionary Approach (eds Herrera, C.M. and Pellmyr, O.), pp. 185208. Blackwell Science, New York.
  • Hutchins, H.E. & Lanner, R.M. (1982) The central role of Clark's nutcracker in the dispersal and establishment of whitebark pine. Oecologia 55, 192201.
  • Johnson, M., Vander Wall, S.B. & Bortchert, M. (2003) A comparative analysis of seed and cone characteristics and seed-dispersal strategies of three pines in the subsection Sabinianae. Plant Ecology 168, 6984.
  • Jordano, P. (1987) Avian fruit removal: effects of fruit variation, crop size, and insect damage. Ecology 68, 17111723.
  • Lande, R. & Arnold, S.J. (1983) The measurement of selection on correlated characters. Evolution 37, 12101226.
  • Lanner, R.M. (1996) Made for Each Other: A Symbiosis of Birds and Pine. Oxford University Press, New York.
  • Linhart, Y.B. (1978) Maintenance of cone variation on cone morphology in California closed-cone pines: the roles of fire, squirrels, and seed output. Southwestern Naturalist 23, 2940.
  • Mezquida, E.T. & Benkman, C.W. (2005) The geographic selection mosaic for squirrels, crossbills and Aleppo pine. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18, 348357.
  • Parchman, T.L. & Benkman, C.W. (2002) Diversifying coevolution between crossbills and black spruce on Newfoundland. Evolution 56, 16631682.
  • Samano, S. & Tomback, D.F. (2003) Cone opening phenology, seed dispersal, and seed predation in Pinus strobiformis in southern Colorado. Écoscience 10, 319326.
  • Schuster, W.S.F. & Mitton, J.B. (2000) Paternity and gene dispersal in limber pine (Pinus flexilis James). Heredity 84, 348361.
  • Siepielski, A.M. & Benkman, C.W. (2007) Convergent patterns in the selection mosaic for two North American bird-dispersed pines. Ecological Monographs, in press.
  • Smith, C.C. (1968) The adaptive nature of social organization in the genus of tree squirrels Tamiasciurus. Ecological Monographs 38, 3163.
  • Smith, C.C. (1970) The coevolution of Tamiasciurus and conifers. Ecological Monographs 40, 349371.
  • Smith, C.C. & Balda, R.P. (1979) Competition among insects, birds, and mammals for conifer seeds. American Zoology 19, 10651083.
  • Tevis, L. Jr (1953) Effects of vertebrate animals on seed crop of P. lambertiana. Journal of Wildlife Management 17, 128131.
  • Tilman, D. (1997) Community invisibility, recruitment limitation, and grassland biodiversity. Ecology 78, 8192.
  • Tomback, D.F. (1982) Dispersal of whitebark pine seeds by Clark's Nutcracker: a mutualism hypothesis. Journal of Animal Ecology 51, 451467.
  • Tomback, D.F. & Linhart, Y.B. (1990) The evolution of bird-dispersed pines. Evolutionary Ecology 4, 185219.
  • Tomback, D.F., Arno, S.F. & Keane, R.E. (2001) Whitebark Pine Communities: Ecology and Restoration. Island Press, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Tomback, D.F., Schoettle, A.S., Chevalier, K.E. & Jones, C.A. (2005) Life on the edge for limber pine: seed dispersal within a peripheral population. Écoscience 12, 519529.
  • Vander Wall, S.B. & Balda, R.P. (1977) Coadaptations of the Clark's Nutcracker and the pinyon pine for efficient seed harvest and transport. Ecological Monographs 47, 89111.
  • Vander Wall, S.B. & Longland, W.S. (2004) Diplochory: are two seed dispersers better than one? Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19, 155161.
  • Vander Wall, S.B., Kuhn, K.M. & Beck, M.J. (2005) Seed removal, seed predation, and secondary dispersal. Ecology 86, 801806.
  • Verheggen, F.J. & Farmer, R.E. Jr (1983) Genetic and environmental variance in seed and cone characteristics of black spruce in a northwestern Ontario seed orchard. Forestry Chronicle 59, 191193.
  • Worthy, F.R. (2005) Conflicts among conifers and their consumers: competition versus conservation. PhD thesis, University of York, York, UK.