• adaptive dynamics;
  • character displacement;
  • coevolution;
  • ecosystem evolution;
  • evolutionary dynamics


  • 1
    We review theoretical and empirical studies to identify instances where evolutionary processes significantly affect the dynamics of populations, communities and ecosystems.
  • 2
    Early theoretical work on eco-evolutionary dynamics was concerned with the effect of (co)evolution on the stability of two-species predator–prey systems and the occurrence of character displacement in simple competitive systems. Today's theoretical ecologists are extending this work to study the eco-evolutionary dynamics of multispecies communities and the functioning and evolutionary emergence of ecosystems.
  • 3
    In terms of methodology, eco-evolutionary modelling has diversified from simple, locus-based population genetic models to encompass models of clonal selection, quantitative trait dynamics and adaptive dynamics.
  • 4
    The few empirical studies on community dynamics that explicitly considered evolutionary processes support the view that evolutionary and ecological dynamics often occur on similar time-scales, and that they co-determine the dynamical behaviour of ecological communities.