SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aerts, R. (1999) Interspecific competition in natural plant communities: mechanisms, trade-offs and plant-soil feedbacks. Journal of Experimental Botany, 50, 2937.
  • Ainsworth, E.A. & Long, S.P. (2005) What have we learned from 15 years of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE)? A meta-analytic review of the responses photosynthesis, canopy properties and plant production to rising CO2. New Phytologist, 165, 351371.
  • Arp, W.J., Van Miierlo, J.E.M., Berendse, F. & Snijders, W. (1998) Interactions between elevated CO2 concentration, nitrogen and water: effects on growth and water use of six perennial plant species. Plant, Cell and Environment, 21, 111.
  • Barnard, R., Barthes, L., Le Roux, X. & Leadley, P.W. (2004) Dynamics of nitrifying activities, denitrifying activities and nitrogen in grassland mesocosms as altered by elevated CO2. New Phytologist, 162, 365376.
  • Bauer, G.A., Berntson, G.M. & Bazzaz, F.A. (2001) Regenerating temperate forests under elevated CO2 and nitrogen deposition: comparing biochemical and stomatal limitation of photosynthesis. New Phytologist, 152, 249266.
  • Bazzaz, F.A. (1990) The response of natural ecosystems to the rising global CO2 levels. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 21, 167196.
  • Bazzaz, F.A. & McConnaughay, K.D.M. (1992) Plant–plant interactions in elevated CO2 environments. Australian Journal of Botany, 40, 547563.
  • Bazzaz, F.A. & Miao, S.L. (1993) Successional status, seed size and responses of tree seedlings to CO2, light and nutrients. Ecology, 74, 104112.
  • Bernacchi, C.J., Coleman, J.S., Bazzaz, F.A. & McConnaughay, K.D.M. (2000) Biomass allocation in old-field annual species grown in elevated CO2 environments: no evidence for optimal partitioning. Global Change Biology, 6, 855863.
  • Bloor, J.M.G., Leadley, P.W. & Barthes, L. (2008) Responses of Fraxinus excelsior seedlings to grass-induced above- and below-ground competition. Plant Ecology, 194, 293304.
  • Bond, W.J., Midgley, G.F. & Woodward F.I. (2003) The importance of low atmospheric CO2 and fire in promoting the spread of grasslands and savannas. Global Change Biology, 9, 973982.
  • Broadmeadow, M.S.J. & Jackson, S.B. (2000) Growth responses of Quercus petraea, Fraxinus excelsior and Pinus sylvestris to elevated carbon dioxide, ozone and water supply. New Phytologist, 146, 437451.
  • Brooker, R.W. (2006) Plant–plant interactions and environmental change. New Phytologist, 171, 271284.
  • Brooker, R.W., Kikvidze, Z., Pugnaire, F.I., Callaway, R.M., Choler, P., Lortie, C.J. & Michalet, R. (2005) The importance of importance. Oikos, 109, 6370.
  • Brown, J.R., Scanlan, J.C. & McIvor, J.G. (1998) Competition with herbs as a limiting factor in shrub invasion in grassland: a test with different growth forms. Journal of Vegetation Science, 9, 829836.
  • Bruhn, D., Leverenz, J.W. & Saxe, H. (2000) Effects of tree size and temperature on relative growth rate and its components of Fagus sylvatica seedlings exposed to two partial pressures of atmospheric [CO2]. New Phytologist, 146, 415425.
  • Cahill, J.F. (1999) Fertilization effects on interactions between above- and below-ground competition in an old field. Ecology, 80, 466480.
  • Callaway, R.M., Brooker, R., Choler, O. et al . (2002) Positive interactions among alpine plants increase with stress. Nature, 417, 844847.
  • Ceulemans, R. & Mousseau, M. (1994) Effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on woody plants. New Phytologist, 127, 425446.
  • Cornelissen, J.H.C., Carnelli, A.L. & Callaghan, T.V. (1999) Generalities in the growth, allocation and leaf quality responses to elevated CO2 in eight woody species. New Phytologist, 141, 401409.
  • Curtis, P.S. & Wang, X. (1998) A meta-analysis of elevated CO2 effects on woody plant mass, form and physiology. Oecologia, 113, 299313.
  • Davis, M.A., Wrage, K.J. & Reich, P.B. (1998) Competition between tree seedlings and herbaceous vegetation: support for a theory of resource supply and demand. Journal of Ecology, 86, 652661.
  • Davis, M.A., Wrage, K.J., Reich, P.B., Tjoelker, M.G., Schaeffer, T. & Muermann, C. (1999) Survival, growth and photosynthesis of tree seedlings competing with herbaceous vegetation along a water-light-nitrogen gradient. Plant Ecology, 145, 341350.
  • Fontin, M-J., Jacquez, G.M. & Shipley, B. (2002) Computer-intensive methods. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics (eds A.H.El-Shaarawi & W.W.Piegorsch), pp. 399402. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester.
  • Gaucherand, S., Liancourt, P. & Lavorel, S. (2006) Importance and intensity of competition along a fertility gradient and across species. Journal of Vegetation Science, 17, 455464.
  • Goldberg, D.E. & Novoplansky, A. (1997) On the relative importance of competition in unproductive environments. Journal of Ecology, 85, 409418.
  • Goldberg, D.E., Rajaniemi, T., Gurevitch, J. & Stewart-Oaten, A. (1999) Empirical approaches to quantifying interaction intensity: competition and facilitation along productivity gradients. Ecology, 80, 11181131.
  • Grime, J.P. (1973) Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature, 242, 344347.
  • Harmens, H., Stirling, C.M., Marshall, C. & Farrar, J.F. (2000) Is partitioning of dry weight and leaf area within Dactylis glomerata affected by N and CO2 enrichment? Annals of Botany, 86, 833839.
  • Hattenschwiler, S. & Korner, C. (2000) Tree seedling responses to in situ CO2-enrichment differ among species and depend on understorey light availability. Global Change Biology, 6, 213226.
  • Hymus, G.J., Baker, N.R. & Long, S.P. (2001) Growth in elevated CO2 can both increase and decrease photochemistry and photosynthesis in a predictable manner. Dactylis glomerata grown in two levels of nitrogen nutrition. Plant Physiology, 127, 12041211.
  • Julien, M.-P., Alard, D. & Balent, G. (2006) Patterns of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.) colonization in mountain grasslands: the importance of management practices. Plant Ecology, 183, 177189.
  • Kerr, G. & Cahalan, C. (2004) A review of the site factors affecting the early growth of ash (Fraxinus excelsior L.). Forest Ecology and Management, 188, 225234.
  • Kitajima, K. & Fenner, M. (2000) Ecology of seedling regeneration. Seeds: The Ecology of Regeneration in Plant Communities (ed. M.Fenner), pp. 331360. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.
  • Knepp, R.G., Hamilton, J.G., Mohan, J.E., Zangerl, A.R., Berenbaum, M.R. & DeLucia, E.H. (2005) Elevated CO2 reduces leaf damage by insect herbivores in a forest community. New Phytologist, 167, 207218.
  • Korner, C. (2003) Ecological impacts of atmospheric CO2 enrichment on terestrial ecosystems. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London, Series A, 361, 20232041.
  • Leadley, P.W. & Reynolds, J.F. (1989) Effects of carbon dioxide enrichment on the development of the first 6 mainstem leaves in soybean. American Journal of Botany, 76, 15511555.
  • Lee, T.D., Tjoelker, M.G., Ellsworth, D.S. & Reich, P.B. (2001) Leaf gas exchange responses of 13 prairie grassland species to elevated CO2 and increased nitrogen supply. New Phytologist, 150, 405418.
  • Marigo, G., Peltier, J.P., Girel, J. & Pautou, G. (2000) Success in the demographic expansion of Fraxinus excelsior L. Trees, 15, 113.
  • Michelsen, A., Graglia, E., Schmidt, I.K., Jonasson, S., Sleep, D. & Quarmby, C. (1999) Differential responses of grass and a dwarf shrub to long-term changes in soil microbial biomass C, N and P following factorial addition of NPK fertilizer, fungicide and labile carbon to a heath. New Phytologist, 143, 523538.
  • Mohan, J.E, Clark, J.S. & Schlesinger, W.H. (2004) Genetic variation in germination, growth, and survivorship of red maple in response to subambient through elevated atmospheric CO2. Global Change Biology, 10, 233247.
  • Navas, M-L., Garnier, E., Austin, M.P. & Gifford, R.M. (1999) Effect of competition on the responses of grasses and legumes to elevated atmospheric CO2 along a nitrogen gradient: differences between isolated plants, monocultures and multi-species mixtures. New Phytologist, 143, 323331.
  • Peltzer, D.A. & Kochy, M. (2001) Competitive effects of grasses and woody plants in mixed-grass prairie. Journal of Ecology, 89, 519527.
  • Polley, H.W., Mayeux, H.S. & Tischler, C.R. (1996) Are some of the recent changes in grassland communities a response to rising CO2 concentrations? Carbon Dioxide, Populations and Communities (eds C.Korner & F.A.Bazzaz), pp. 177195. Academic Press, San Diego.
  • Poorter, H. & Navas, M.-L. (2003) Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist, 157, 175198.
  • Poorter, H. & Perez-Soba, M. (2001) The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions. Oecologia, 129, 120.
  • Poorter, H. & Perez-Soba, M. (2002) Plant growth at elevated CO2. The Earth System: Biological and Ecological Dimensions of Global Environmental Change (eds H.A.Moony & J.G.Canadell), pp. 489496. John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester.
  • Redente, E.F., Friedlander, J.E. & McLendon, T. (1992) Response of early and late semiarid species to nitrogen and phosphorus gradients. Plant and Soil, 140, 127135.
  • Reich, P.B., Tilman., D., Craine, J., Ellsworth, D., Tjoelker, M.G., Knops, J., Wedin, D., Naeem, S., Bahauddin, D., Goth, J., Bengtson, W. & Lee, T.D. (2001) Do species and functional groups differ in acquisition and use of C, N and water under varying atmospheric CO2 and N availability regimes? A field test with 16 grassland species. New Phytologist, 150, 435448.
  • Roumet, C., Laurent, G., Canivenc, G. & Roy, J. (2002) Genotypic variation in the response of two perennial grass species to elevated carbon dioxide. Oecologia, 133, 342348.
  • Sala, O.E., Chapin, F.S., Armesto, J.J., Berlow, E., BloomFeld, J., Dirzo, R., Huber-Sanwald, E., Huenneke, L.F., Jackson, R.B., Kinzig, A., Leemans, R., Lodge, D.M., Mooney, H.A., Oesterheld, M., Poff, N.L., Sykes, M.T., Walker, B.H., Walker, M. & Wall, D.H. (2000) Global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science, 287, 17701774.
  • Sammul, M., Kull, K., Oksanen, L. & Veromann, P. (2000) Competition intensity and its importance: results of field experiments with Anthoxanthum odoratum. Oecologia, 125, 1825.
  • Stitt, M. & Krapp, A. (1999) The interaction between elevated carbon dioxide and nitrogen nutrition: the physiological and molecular background. Plant, Cell and Environment, 22, 583621.
  • Tapper, P.-G. (1992) Demography of persistent juveniles in Fraxinus excelsior. Ecography, 15, 385392.
  • Tilman, D. (1990) Constraints and tradeoffs: towards a predictive theory of competition and succession. Oikos, 58, 315.
  • Van Auken, O.W. & Bush, J.K. (1997) Growth of Prosopsis glandulosa in response to changes in aboveground and belowground interference. Ecology, 78, 12221229.
  • Wardle, P. (1961) Biological flora of British Isles: Fraxinus excelsior L. Journal of Ecology, 49, 739751.
  • Weiner, J. (1990) Asymmetric competition in plant populations. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 5, 360364.
  • Welden, C.W. & Slauson, W.L. (1986) The intensity of competition versus its importance: an overlooked distinction and some implications. Quarterly Review of Biology, 61, 2344.
  • Wilson, S.D. (1998) Competition between grasses and woody plants. Population Biology of Grasses (ed. G.P.Cheplick), pp. 231254. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
  • Wilson, S.D. & Tilman, D. (1991) Components of plant competition along an experimental gradient of nitrogen availability. Ecology, 72, 10501065.
  • Wullschleger, S.D., Tschaplinski, T.J. & Norby, R.J. (2002) Plant water relations at elevated CO2: implications for water-limited environments. Plant, Cell and Environment, 25, 319331.
  • Zar, J.H. (1999) Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice-Hall International, Inc., London.
  • Zavaleta, E.S. (2006) Shrub establishment under experimental global changes in a California grassland. Plant Ecology, 184, 5363.