Lay Summary

Figure S1. Range of biomes surveyed.

Figure S2. Site locations and aridity map.

Figure S3. Relationship between xylem-specific conductivity (KS) and maximum plant height.

Figure S4. Principal component eigenvectors for vessel lumen fraction and S across all sites.

Table S1. Climate and soil characteristics for all sites.

Table S2. Species’ means and standard deviations for all hydraulic traits.

Table S3. Pearson product moment correlation matrix for species 5 m in height.

Table S4. Pearson product moment correlation matrix for phylogenetically independent contrasts.

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