The demographic impacts of shifts in climate means and extremes on alpine butterflies
Article first published online: 18 APR 2012
© 2012 The Authors. Functional Ecology © 2012 British Ecological Society
Volume 26, Issue 4, pages 969–977, August 2012
How to Cite
Buckley, L. B. and Kingsolver, J. G. (2012), The demographic impacts of shifts in climate means and extremes on alpine butterflies. Functional Ecology, 26: 969–977. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2012.01969.x
- Issue published online: 16 JUL 2012
- Article first published online: 18 APR 2012
- Received 19 October 2011; accepted 23 January 2012 Handling Editor: Art Woods
- biophysical model;
- climate change;
- egg viability;
- elevation gradient;
- flight activity time;
- local adaptation;
- thermal stress
1. Climate change impacts organismal performance via both shifts in mean conditions and acute thermal stress events. Yet, we know little about the relative fitness impacts of climate means and extremes, and how phenotypes mediate these effects.
2. Here, we incorporate demography in a biophysical model of two alpine butterflies with distinct phenotypes to examine the impacts of recent climate change in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado.
3. The model suggests that shifts in available flight time (mediated by weather means) and egg viability (mediated by weather extremes) over time have varied between phenotypes and along the elevation gradient. Generally, small declines in egg viability may be more than offset by large increases in available flight time at higher elevations.
4. Interactions between environmental conditions and phenotypes may produce unexpected, individualistic responses to climate change.