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Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells which play an exclusive role in bone remodeling, but the molecular mechanisms of osteolysis, how osteoclasts are activated and how the lytic granules are finally released towards the bone matrix are poorly understood. Here we show that an energy molecule ATP induces osteolysis via P2X7-nucleotide receptor and that deacetylation of α-tubulin is essential for the whole process of osteolysis under the control of a tyrosine kinase Syk. By developing a traceable and reproducible in vitro analyzing system for osteoclast function, we found that ATP-signaling gives rise to two events simultaneously (i) cytoskeletal reorganization for the formation of sealing zones, ring-like adhesion structures which delimit the contact surface, and (ii) the delivery and secretion of lytic granules towards the delimited site on the matrix. We further found that deacetylation of α-tubulin is a critical reaction for osteoclast function. Pharmacological inhibition of α-tubulin deacetylation resulted in (i) failure of the sealing-zone like structure formation and (ii) ceased secretion of lytic granules. Additionally, kinetics of deacetylation was found to be regulated by Syk. These data suggest a novel P2X7 microtubular regulation pathway related to Syk for a therapeutic target in osteolytic diseases.