Dissolution of titanomagnetite and sulphidization in sediments from Lake Kinneret, Israel



Magnetic extracts obtained from sediment cores recovered from Lake Kinneret, Israel, were subjected to comprehensive scanning electron microscope and in-line energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analyses. A variety of ferrimagnetic iron oxides and iron sulphide particles were identified, along with apparently non-magnetic iron sulphides. The majority of the iron oxides are titanomagnetites that have undergone pervasive dissolution, and in many cases were only preserved as skeletal, 3-D lattices of ilmenite lamellae. Often the spaces between the submicron ilmenite lamellae are empty. Also sponge-like dissolution features are observed in some residual titanomagnetite grains. Another group of titanomagnetite grains is characterized by superficial shrinkage-cracks, which indicate low-temperature maghemitization. In some cases, these cracks appear to be where dissolution started. Most titanomagnetites contain impurities of Al, Mg, Si and Mn on the order of 1 per cent. Chromium-magnetites, with minor Ti, Mg and Al content on the order of a few percent, but without Mn, were also found. Chromium-magnetites mostly occur as octahedra in a well-preserved state, which indicates that they are less prone to dissolution. Magnetite spherules of 40–60 μm in size, which were mostly hollow, were only found in material collected from the outer zone of the core section that was in contact with the steel core barrel. These spherules were not found in material collected from the centre of the core. They are therefore interpreted as contaminants that were produced during fabrication of the steel core barrel. Iron sulphides are present as pyrite, either as larger aggregates of cubic crystals, each of up to 20 μm in size, or as 5–10 μm framboidal aggregates, consisting mostly about 0.3 μm idiomorphic octahedra. The cubic pyrite crystals have heterogeneous compositions. Pure pyrite should be non-magnetic, but even aggregates of up to 150 μm in size were magnetically separated. They probably therefore contain a magnetic core of greigite or overgrown titanomagnetite. The latter possibility is supported by observations of residual titanomagnetites with individual pyrite crystals residing directly on their surfaces, or filling space between ilmenite lamellae. Irregular aggregates of flaky, submicron iron sulphides were also found, which are interpreted to be greigite. The greigite has a low degree of visible crystallization. Pyrite and/or greigite grains were found inside the aggregates, or in agglomerates with organic remnants. Together, visual observations and elemental analyses provide clear evidence of pervasive dissolution of primary titanomagnetite and concurrent sulphidization of sediments from Lake Kinneret.