Locating hydrothermal acoustic sources at Old Faithful Geyser using Matched Field Processing



In 1992, a large and dense array of geophones was placed around the geyser vent of Old Faithful, in the Yellowstone National Park, to determine the origin of the seismic hydrothermal noise recorded at the surface of the geyser and to understand its dynamics. Old Faithful Geyser (OFG) is a small-scale hydrothermal system where a two-phase flow mixture erupts every 40 to 100 min in a high continuous vertical jet. Using Matched Field Processing (MFP) techniques on 10-min-long signal, we localize the source of the seismic pulses recorded at the surface of the geyser. Several MFP approaches are compared in this study, the frequency-incoherent and frequency-coherent approach, as well as the linear Bartlett processing and the non-linear Minimum Variance Distorsionless Response (MVDR) processing. The different MFP techniques used give the same source position with better focalization in the case of the MVDR processing. The retrieved source position corresponds to the geyser conduit at a depth of 12 m and the localization is in good agreement with in situ measurements made at Old Faithful in past studies.