• Controlled-source seismology;
  • Seismic tomography;
  • Crustal structure;
  • Europe


We present a newly developed approach of combining controlled-source seismology (CSS) and local earthquake tomography (LET) data to obtain a new 3-D crustal model of the western Alpine region. Our approach combines either data by taking into account the strengths of the individual seismic methods. Our western Alpine 3-D model is primarily based on a well-defined Moho, constrained by CSS and LET data, and includes smooth lateral variations in seismic velocities mainly constrained by LET data, but locally also by CSS data. The consistent combination of results from the two different seismic methods is feasible due to LET Moho elements, as defined by characteristic P-wave velocities and their uncertainty estimates. These uncertainty estimates are based on values of the diagonal element of the resolution matrix, absolute P-wave velocities that are typical for crust and mantle and a specific velocity gradient across the Moho discontinuity. Finally, our definition of LET Moho elements and their uncertainties is validated by comparisons of highest quality Moho results from both methods coinciding in 353 localities. Our model clearly shows three Moho surfaces, being Europe, Adria and Liguria as well as major tectonic structures like suture zones and the high-velocity Ivrea body. In general, it is in a good agreement with previous studies. The biggest differences occur along plate boundaries, where the strong lateral velocity variations are best resolved by LET. Due to the larger number of available Moho reflector elements a more accurate definition of plate boundaries at Moho level is possible and, therefore, new insights in deep lithosphere structures of the Alpine collision zone can be expected. Furthermore, our new 3-D crustal model directly includes a 3-D migrated image of the Ivrea body.