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Appendix S1.

Fig. S1. Observed leaf [N] on an area basis in (a) Dasylirion leiophyllum and (b) Bouteloua curtipendula from 2004 to 2006. Values are sample means?SE, based on N=3 for each treatment. S, summer addition treatment; W, winter addition treatment; SW, summer and winter addition treatment; C, control treatment.

Fig. S2. Observed photosynthesis at saturating light (Asat) for Dasylirion leiophyllum and Bouteloua curtipendula from 2004 to 2006. Values are sample mean?SE, based on N=3 for each treatment. S, summer addition treatment; W, winter addition treatment; SW, summer and winter addition treatment; C, control treatment.

Table S1. Seasonal precipitation amounts, number of precipitation events, and event size (or magnitude) received at the sotol grassland site during the study period (2004?2006) compared with the long-term seasonal mean (1986?2006). The percentage difference from the 20-year mean is indicated in parentheses. Winter: DJF, spring: MAM, summer: JJA, fall: SON.

Table S2. Supplemental seasonal precipitation amounts (mm) from the initiation of the experimental manipulation to the end of the study period (2002?2006). In 2002, supplemental amounts were based on the 30-year seasonal mean. From 2003 to 2006, supplemental winter amounts were 25% of the previous 3 months' precipitation, and supplemental summer amounts were 25% of the previous 1 month's precipitation.

Table S3. Observed vs. predicted r2 values for the hierarchical Bayesian multiple regression model (HB-MR) [see Eqn (7) and Table 3]. Values are also shown for the HB-MR model that evaluates the residuals from that HB-MR in an hb-manova model with year, season, and treatment effects (HB-MR+hb-manova).

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