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Appendix S1. Changes in meteorological conditions between 1961 and 2005. Temperatures (A, C) are averaged over the 25 weather stations within 200 km of the PNR banding site, with each station's contribution weighted by the inverse of its distance from PNR. For temperature, spring is March–May and autumn is August–October. For the NAO index (B, D), winter is December–February and summer is June–August. Dashed lines were estimated by least squares regression.

Appendix S2. Summary of migration timing for individual species. Timing is reported for the 10% and 50% quantiles of captured individuals in spring, and for the 50% and 90% quantiles in autumn. Years is the number of years with at least 10 individuals captured; the mean time of passage is the Julian date; the slope and SE refer to the rate of change in timing of passage (days yr−1) estimated from linear regression. Species with <10 years' data are not included. Migration distance differentiates species that winter primarily in southern North America (short) from those that winter in the tropics (long). Breeding range distinguishes between species that breed near the banding station from those that breed entirely to the north or at higher elevation.

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