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Appendix S1. Table S1. Relationships among continuous species trait variables. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) are shown for each pairwise correlation. Statistical significances: *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.

Table S2. Relationships between continuous and categorical species trait variables. F-test values derived from a generalized linear model (GLM) are shown for each pairwise combination. Poisson error structure was applied in GLMs for the response variables butterfly mobility, body size and log(length of flight period), and quasipoisson error structure was applied with the variable prevalence of distribution. Statistical significances: *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.

Table S3. Relationships among categorical species trait variables. χ2 test values are shown for each pairwise comparison. Statistical significances: *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.

Appendix S2. The phylogenetic hypothesis used in this study to calculate the species-to-species correlation matrix and phylogenetically independent contrasts. The tree was based on a paper by Päivinen et al. (2005), and details for the family Pieridae were updated from Braby et al. (2006).

Appendix S3. Maps of annual growing degree days (above 5 °C; GDD5) in Finland: (a) observed annual GDD5 in the period 1971–2000 and (b) an ensemble projection of annual GDD5 for the period 2010–2039 based on the SRES A2 emission scenario. The projection was calculated as the average of 19 different model predictions. The maps were produced by the Finnish Meteorological Institute.

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