Species traits explain recent range shifts of Finnish butterflies
Article first published online: 3 NOV 2008
© 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Global Change Biology
Volume 15, Issue 3, pages 732–743, March 2009
How to Cite
PÖYRY, J., LUOTO, M., HEIKKINEN, R. K., KUUSSAARI, M. and SAARINEN, K. (2009), Species traits explain recent range shifts of Finnish butterflies. Global Change Biology, 15: 732–743. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01789.x
- Issue published online: 6 FEB 2009
- Article first published online: 3 NOV 2008
- Received 24 March 2008; revised version received 8 August 2008 and accepted 13 August 2008
Appendix S1. Table S1. Relationships among continuous species trait variables. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) are shown for each pairwise correlation. Statistical significances: *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.
Table S2. Relationships between continuous and categorical species trait variables. F-test values derived from a generalized linear model (GLM) are shown for each pairwise combination. Poisson error structure was applied in GLMs for the response variables butterfly mobility, body size and log(length of flight period), and quasipoisson error structure was applied with the variable prevalence of distribution. Statistical significances: *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.
Table S3. Relationships among categorical species trait variables. χ2 test values are shown for each pairwise comparison. Statistical significances: *P<0.05, **P<0.01 and ***P<0.001.
Appendix S2. The phylogenetic hypothesis used in this study to calculate the species-to-species correlation matrix and phylogenetically independent contrasts. The tree was based on a paper by Päivinen et al. (2005), and details for the family Pieridae were updated from Braby et al. (2006).
Appendix S3. Maps of annual growing degree days (above 5 °C; GDD5) in Finland: (a) observed annual GDD5 in the period 1971–2000 and (b) an ensemble projection of annual GDD5 for the period 2010–2039 based on the SRES A2 emission scenario. The projection was calculated as the average of 19 different model predictions. The maps were produced by the Finnish Meteorological Institute.
Please note: Wiley-Blackwell are not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting materials supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing material) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
|GCB_1789_sm_suppmat.doc||622K||Supporting info item|
Please note: Wiley Blackwell is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.