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Appendix S1. Characteristics of sampling sites and sampled stands (trembling aspen TA, paper birch PB, black spruce BS, and jack pine JP) along the latitudinal gradient from 46°N to 54°N in the eastern Canadian boreal forest. I: Sugar maple-yellow birch bioclimatic zone; II: Yellow birch-balsam fir, and paper birch-balsam fir climax zone; III: Black spruce-lichen, and black spruce-moss climax zone. The mean distance between sites pertaining to the same species is 1.11° latitude for TA, 1.11° latitude for PB, 0.85° latitude for BS, and 0.96° latitude for JP, respectively.

Appendix S2. Bootstrapped correlation between the PCs (PCI to PCIV) and the climate data (monthly mean temperature, total precipitation, and drought code) from 46°N to 54°N. Only significant climate variables in the previous year (e.g., Jun) and current year (e.g., jan) at different latitudes were listed in the table. Significant positive and negative correlation (P≤0.05) was indicated by ‘p’ and ‘n’, respectively. The abbreviations 51PB, 53BF, 53CON, 54BF, and 54CON represent the climate data for the paper birch site at 51°N, both deciduous sites at 53°N, both coniferous sites at 53°N, both deciduous sites at 54°N, and both coniferous sites at 54°N, respectively.

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