Century-scale records of coral growth rates indicate that local stressors reduce coral thermal tolerance threshold
Article first published online: 31 JUL 2009
© 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd
Global Change Biology
Volume 16, Issue 4, pages 1247–1257, April 2010
How to Cite
CARILLI, J. E., NORRIS, R. D., BLACK, B., WALSH, S. M. and McFIELD, M. (2010), Century-scale records of coral growth rates indicate that local stressors reduce coral thermal tolerance threshold. Global Change Biology, 16: 1247–1257. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02043.x
- Issue published online: 22 FEB 2010
- Article first published online: 31 JUL 2009
- Received 7 April 2009; revised version received 22 July 2009 and accepted 24 July 2009
Fig. S1. X-radiograph of 3 short cores from the Sapodilla Cayes. Core name labels and core tops are at left. Aluminum bars are on the top and bottom of the x-ray. Note the compressed growth in 1998 revealed as a bright, dense band and denoted by an arrow on the bottom core. Aragonite wedge is labeled, other wedges are aluminum.
Fig. S2. Master chronologies of extension (cm), density (g/cm3) and calcification (g/cm2) for each site (top) and the number of cores in each chronology (bottom). Major hurricanes that passed close to each site are shown as arrows and are named, and the bleaching events of 1995 and 1998 are shown as vertical orange lines.
Fig. S3. Accumulated thermal stress for Discovery Bay, Jamaica. Temperature stress was calculated by summing the monthly temperature anomalies that exceed the long term average of the maximum monthly temperatures. Data from the ERSSTV2 dataset (Smith and Reynolds 2004), centered on 18°N, 78°W was used. Stars indicate recorded mass bleaching in 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991, 1998, and 2005.
Fig. S4. Cayos Cochinos water temperature data from several sources. Water temperature data from in situ measurements at Pelican Point, Cayos Cochinos (measurements every 10 minutes, black) is compared with monthly long-term data from the HadISST (green) (Rayner et al. 2003) and ERSSTV2 (yellow) (Smith and Reynolds 2004) datasets, along with more recent satellite measurements from AVHRR (blue) (NOAA Coral Reef Watch) and IGOSS (pink) (Reynolds et al. 2002) datasets.
Fig. S5. (Top) Air temperature record from the Goldson International Airport, 1941–2004. Warm air temperatures in the late 1950's support our confidence in long sea surface temperature records. Dashed line delineates 30°C air temperature. (Bottom) Monthly cloudiness record (black circles) from the grid cell centered on 17°N, 87°W, expressed in oktas, the number of eighths of the sky covered by clouds. A linear trend line is plotted in gray and the months June-September in 1958 and 1998 are shown for comparison (red boxes).
Fig. S6. Accumulated annual temperature stress. Temperature stress was calculated by summing the monthly temperature anomalies that exceed the long term average of the maximum monthly temperatures. Records from 2 grid cells (denoted by the latitude and longitude of the center of each cell) from each of 2 long-term temperature records: HadISST (Rayner et al. 2003) and ERSSTV2 (Smith and Reynolds 2004) are used, and the average of these four records is also shown (A). (B) and (D) represent Turneffe, (C) and (D) represent Sapodilla, and (C) and (E) represent Cayos Cochinos and Utila. Years with the highest heat stress in the average of all four temperature records are denoted by a dashed line.
Table S1. Interseries correlation values for the three growth measurements for each site.
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