The effects of 4 years of simulated nitrogen deposition, as nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+), on microbial carbon turnover were studied in an ombrotrophic peatland. We investigated the mineralization of simple forms of carbon using MicroResp™ measurements (a multiple substrate induced respiration technique) and the activities of four soil enzymes involved in the decomposition of more complex forms of carbon or in nutrient acquisition: N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), cellobiohydrolase (CBH), acid phosphatase (AP), and phenol oxidase (PO). The potential mineralization of labile forms of carbon was significantly enhanced at the higher N additions, especially with NH4+ amendments, while potential enzyme activities involved in breakdown of more complex forms of carbon or nutrient acquisition decreased slightly (NAG and CBH) or remained unchanged (AP and PO) with N amendments. This study also showed the importance of distinguishing between NO3− and NH4+ amendments, as their impact often differed. It is possible that the limited response on potential extracellular enzyme activity is due to other factors, such as limited exposure to the added N in the deeper soil or continued suboptimal functioning of the enzymes due to the low pH, possibly via the inhibitory effect of low phenol oxidase activity.