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Fig. S1 Thermal niche breadth vs. upper thermal niche limit for 2151 well-collected plant species from the moist broadleaf forests of South America with niches defined on the basis of maximum and minimum mean daily temperatures of the hottest and coldest months. The heavy black line is the running mean (averaged over 1°C). The breadth of thermal niches decreases for species with upper thermal limits >30.5°C or <26°C (vertical lines). The dashed line indicates the maximum possible thermal niche breadth (minimum temperature=-4.5°C). Mean thermal niche breadths ±95% CI for species within each bin are indicated.

Fig. S2 Observed and corrected thermal niches as defined on the basis of maximum and minimum mean daily temperatures of the hottest and coldest months for each of the 2151 study species (ordered by lower thermal niche limits to improve visual clarity). Black vertical lines indicate the observed thermal niches and gray lines indicate the mean corrected thermal niches for species with observed upper thermal limits ≥30.5°C (see text).

Fig. S3 Thermal niche breadth vs. upper thermal niche limit for 2151 well-collected plant species from the moist broadleaf forests of South America. The heavy black line is the running mean (averaged over 1°C; see main text). The shaded area shows the 95% Confidence Interval for expected mean values based on simulations where species are distributed at random with regards to temperature and niche breadth, but truncation is not permitted (i.e., any species with a simulated niche breadth extending beyond the observed temperature limits were discarded). According to this null model, species occurring in hotter areas will tend to have broader niches than species with colder upper thermal niche limits.

Table S1 Species richness and approximate area (km2) of climatic zones within the ‘Tropical and Subtropical Moist Broadleaf Forests’ biome of South America. Zones are defined by mean maximum daily temperature of the hottest month.

Table S2 Rates of biotic attrition (A, equivalent to percent species loss), for climatic zones within the study biome (as defined by mean maximum daily temperature of the hottest month) predicted per degree of warming using observed thermal niches (as defined by the difference in the maximum mean daily maximum temperature of the hottest month and minimum mean minimum daily temperature of the coldest month from which samples have been collected in order to account for seasonality and diurnal temperature variation) and correcting for truncated thermal limits (95% Confidence Intervals).

Table S3 Herbaria contributing tropical plant collections. All collections accessed through the Global Biodiversity and Information Facility (www.gbif.org) between 1/2008–2/2008.

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