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Figure S1. Total precipitation and mean temperature for different parts of the growing season from 1983 to 2007. September through December is on the left and January through April is on the right. Each growing season is labeled as the year in which the whole season ended.

Figure S2. Timing of all rain events that triggered a germination cohort during the 1983 to 2007 germination seasons (Oct.1 to April 15). Each growing season is labeled as the year in which the season ended. The amount of rainfall and the proportion of total germination for each year are given.

Figure S3. Ordination of growing seasons in species space. The seasons are colored according to the passage of time, from blue to green to yellow-green to orange. Each growing season is labeled as the year in which the season ended. The distance between the years is proportional to their dissimilarity in species composition. Note that species composition changed with time (along axis 1). The final stress for the ordination was 7.68. Vectors indicate correlations of secondary matrix variables with ordination space (supporting information Table S2).

Figure S4. Linear regressions of the life stage k values (germination, survivorship, and fecundity) on total k. Each species was analyzed separately. R2 and P values are given in Table 1 of the manuscript.

Figure S5. Contour plots indicating the germination niches of Eriophyllum lanosum, Erodium texanum, Plantago patagonica, Schismus barbatus, and Stylocline micropoides. Circles in the graph on the lower right indicate conditions during all rain events that triggered germination. Precipitation is the total precipitation in the rain event that triggered germination. Temperature is the average temperature during and for five days following the rain event. The z-axis is the number of individuals that germinated. See Fig. 3 of the manuscript for contour plots of the other four focal species.

Table S1. Results of the principal component analysis on species composition from 1983–2007 (Fig. 2b). Correlations of species abundance with the first two PCs are given. The first PC accounted for 60% of the variation and the second accounted for 16% of the variation.

Table S2.r values indicating the relationship of species and secondary variables with community composition ordination space (supporting information Fig. S3). ‘Temperature’ is the average growing season temperature, ‘Precipitation’ is the total growing season precipitation, ‘Germination Date’ is the date of the first germination event that year, ‘Germination Temperature’ is the temperature during the first germination event, and ‘Year’ is the calendar year in which the growing season ended.

Table S3.r values indicating the relationship of species and secondary variables with germination ordination space (Fig. 4 of manuscript). ‘Temp’ is the average temperature during the rain event and for 5 days following the rain event that triggered germination. ‘Precipitation’ is the total precipitation in the rain event that triggered germination. ‘Seasonal precip’ is cumulative growing season rainfall prior to that particular germination event, ‘date’ is the date of germination, ‘PCA’ is the physiological PC score from high RGR and low WUE to low RGR and high WUE, and ‘year’ is the year of germination.

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