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Figure S1. Assessment of model fits for the most parsimonious mixed effects maximum likelihood models describing the variation in iWUE, Δ18O and BAI for three tropical tree species in western Thailand. 1 : 1 line shown in all plots. (a)Intrinsic water-use efficiency (models: Toona, t8.s; Melia, m7.s; Chukrasia, c8.C.s). (b) Oxygen isotope composition (large delta, Δ18O) (models: Toona, t.Ox.7, Melia, m.Ox.6; Chukrasia, c.Ox.6.C). (c) Stem growth (BAI) (models: Toona, t7.g.s; Melia, m7.g; Chukrasia, c8.g.C).

Table S1. Selection of mixed models describing the variation in intrinsic water use efficiency (iWUE) with calendar year (Y), tree diameter (D), tree age (A) and crown dominance position in the canopy (C, for Chukrasia only: suppressed or not-suppressed). Terms in lower case were not significant (P>0.05). ΔAIC not presented if higher order terms were not-significant. Random slope inclusion indicated by x. Calendar year was mean centered. All models fit better with a random intercept. Selected model indicated in bold. Abbreviations: log-likelihood (LL), Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

Table S2. Maximum likelihood parameter estimates for mixed models describing the effects of calendar year (Y), tree diameter (D), and crown dominance (C, for Chukrasia only) on intrinsic water use efficiency for Toona, Melia and Chukrasia. Pseudo r-squared values were 0.67, 0.62 and 0.79 respectively. Calendar year was mean centered. See Table S1 for model selection (models: t8.s, m7.s, c8.C.s).

Table S3. Selection of mixed models describing the variation in tree ring oxygen isotope composition (Δ18O‰) with calendar year (Y), tree diameter (D), tree age (A) and crown dominance position in the canopy (C, for Chukrasia only: suppressed or not-suppressed). Terms in lower case were not significant (P>0.05), or indicate the model did not converge (DNC). ΔAIC values not presented for models with non-significant higher order terms. Random slope inclusion indicated by x. Calendar year was mean centered. All models fit better with a random intercept. Selected model indicated in bold. Abbreviations: log-likelihood (LL), Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

Table S4. Maximum likelihood parameter estimates for mixed models describing the effects of calendar year (Y), tree diameter (D) and crown dominance (C, for Chukrasia only) on Δ18O for Toona, Melia, Chukrasia. Pseudo r-squared values were 0.20, 0.28 and 0.64 respectively. Calendar year was mean centered. See Table S2 for model selection (models: t.Ox.7, m.Ox.6, c.Ox.6.C).

Table S5. Selection of mixed models describing the variation in basal area increment (BAI) with calendar year (Y), tree diameter (D), tree age (A) and crown dominance position in the canopy (C, for Chukrasia only: suppressed or not-suppressed). Terms in lower case were not significant (P>0.05). ΔAIC values are not presented if higher order terms were not significant. Random slope inclusion indicated by x. Calendar year was log-transformed and centered by its mean value. BAI, D and A were log-transformed. All models fit better with a random intercept and an autoregressive error correlation component of order 1. Selected model indicated in bold. Abbreviations: log-likelihood (LL), Akaike's information criterion (AIC).

Table S6. Maximum likelihood parameter estimates for mixed effects models describing the effects of calendar year (Y), tree diameter (D) and crown dominance (C, for Chukrasia only) on basal area increment for Toona, Melia and Chukrasia. Pseudo r-squared values were 0.65, 0.47 and 0.75 respectively. Autocorrelation was modelled using an autoregressive model with an order of 1 (AR1). See Table S3 for model selection (models: t7.g.s, m7.g, c8.g.C).

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