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Figure S1. Measured maximum active layer thickness at ZEROCALM 1 in Zackenberg from 1996 to 2008.

Figure S2. Sensitivity functions for CO2 production as a function of temperature and water content (modified from Elberling, 2003) used in this study to predict future CO2 production from thawing permafrost layers.

Figure S3. The thermal properties of the soil at ZEROCALM 1 in Zackenberg: (a)</!b> Measured thermal conductivities (circles) and heat capacities (triangles); and (b) calculated thermal diffusivities (squares). Open symbols represent the upper 10 cm and solid symbols the underlying 0.1–0.6 m depth interval. Default values used in the CoupModel are shown by dashed lines for the upper 10 cm and solid lines for 0.1–0.6 m depth interval. Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation. Error bars indicate ±1 standard deviation.

Figure S4. Measured subsurface conditions at ZEROCALM-1 in Zackenberg from 1 Jan. 2007–31 Dec. 2007: (a) measured soil temperatures (colour map), measured snow depths (black line) and measured thaw depths (circles) with error bars indicating ±1 standard deviation; and (b) measured soil water content (colour map) and measured snow depths (black line).

Figure S5. Observed microbial-mediated heat production versus observed CO2 production from permafrost samples at 10°C. The marked area represents the range 25–40 MJ kg-1 C respired reported by Khvorostyanov et al. (2008).

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