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Appendix S1. Summer rainfall (June-August) for the study area during the 1902–2006 series. Data from 1902–1990 are inferred from La Cartuja meteorological station (Granada; R2=0.75; P<0.0001). Water amount for the simulated rainy summer was added according to the mean summer precipitation of the five mildest years (1915, 1930, 1940, 1952 and 1967), giving a value of 180 mm. We took the five highest values by two principal reasons: in one hand we wanted to simulate extreme (although natural) events; in the other hand, during these mild years evapotranspiration diminishes, making differences even stronger.

Appendix S2. Mean values and results of one way-anova (df=2; N=144) exploring differences among plots where climatic scenarios were later simulated during the previous summer (2006) and spring (2007) to experiment development of the different elements: soil organic matter (SOM), organic carbon (Corg), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), microbial carbon (Cmicro), total nitrogen (Ntot), inorganic nitrogen (Ninorg), dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), microbial nitrogen (Nmicro), inorganic phosphorus (Pinorg), and microbial phosphorus (Pmicro). The two depths (0–8 and 8–16 cm) are pooled. Concentration values in the microbial fractions were not corrected for extraction efficiency. As expected, there were no differences among plots prior to climatic scenarios simulation for any of the nutrient forms analyzed. We may thus consider that differences detected in the following years were due to the treatment.

Appendix S3. Soil and microbial nutrients variations (SOM: soil organic matter, in %; Corg: organic carbon, in %; DOC: dissolved organic carbon, in μg/g; Cmicro: microbial carbon, in μg/g; Ntot: total nitrogen, in %; Ninorg: inorganic nitrogen, in μg/g; DON: dissolved organic nitrogen, in μg/g; Nmicro: microbial nitrogen, in μg/g; Pinorg: inorganic phosphors, in μg/g; Pmicro: microbial phosphors, in μg/g) among soil depths: upper (0–8 cm, black bars), and lower (8–16 cm, grey bars). Different habitats and climatic scenarios are pooled. Concentration values in the microbial fractions were not corrected for extraction efficiency. Significant differences among depths after Bonferroni correction are indicated: * 0.05≤P<0.01; ** 0.01≤P<0.001; ***P≤0.001. Error bars represents standard error. Overall, SOM was 1.3 times higher in the upper profile than in the lower, Corg 1.3 times, DOC 2.0 times, Cmicro 1.9 times, Ntot 1.4 times, Ninorg 1.3 times, DON 1.7 times, Nmicro 2.3 times, Pinorg 1.9 times, and Pmicro 2.3 times.

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