1Present address: Ministère des Ressources Naturelles et de la Faune, Québec, Québec.
An inventory-based analysis of Canada's managed forest carbon dynamics, 1990 to 2008
Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011
© 2011 Crown in the right of Canada
Global Change Biology
Volume 17, Issue 6, pages 2227–2244, June 2011
How to Cite
STINSON, G., KURZ, W. A., SMYTH, C. E., NEILSON, E. T., DYMOND, C. C., METSARANTA, J. M., BOISVENUE, C., RAMPLEY, G. J., LI, Q., WHITE, T. M. and BLAIN, D. (2011), An inventory-based analysis of Canada's managed forest carbon dynamics, 1990 to 2008. Global Change Biology, 17: 2227–2244. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02369.x
Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms
- Issue online: 19 APR 2011
- Version of Record online: 5 JAN 2011
- Accepted manuscript online: 15 NOV 2010 01:41AM EST
- Received 31 August 2010 and accepted 10 October 2010
- 2010) A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. Forest Ecology and Management, 259, 660–684. , , et al. (
- 2001) Direct carbon emissions from Canadian forest fires, 1959–1999. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 31, 512–525. , , et al. (
- 2005) Drier summers cancel out the CO2 uptake enhancement induced by warmer springs. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 102, 10823–10827. , , et al. (
- 1999) Carbon budget of the Canadian forest product sector. Environmental Science and Policy, 2, 25–41. , , , (
- 1961) Waldertragskunde. BLV Verlagsgesellschaft, München. (The Principles of Forest Yield Study). Gardiner SH (trans.), 1970. Pergamon, Oxford, 506 pp. (
- 1994) Forest Measurements, (4th edn). McGraw Hill, New York. , (
- 2007) The role of historical fire disturbance in the carbon dynamics of the pan-boreal region: a process-based analysis. Journal of Geophysical Research, 112, G02029. , , et al. (
- BCMoF (2000) Forest Health Aerial Overview Survey Standards for British Columbia. Version 2.0. British Columbia Ministry of Forests, Victoria. Available at: http://www.ilmb.gov.bc.ca/risc/pubs/teveg/foresthealth/assets/aerial.pdf (accessed 30 November 2010).
- 2010) Simulations show decreasing carbon stocks and potential for carbon emissions in Rocky Mountain forests over the next century. Ecological Applications, 20, 1302–1319. , (
- 2007) Fire as the dominant driver of central Canadian forest carbon balance. Nature, 450, 89–92. , , , (
- 2008) Accounting of forest carbon sinks and sources under a future climate protocol – factoring out past disturbance and management effects on age-class structure. Environmental Science and Policy, 11, 669–686. , , (
- 2007) Model-based volume-to-biomass conversion for forested and vegetated land in Canada. Information Report BC-X-411, 111 pp. , , , (
- CCFM (2009) National Forestry Database. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers. Available at: http://nfdp.ccfm.org/ (accessed April 2009).
- 2006) Reconciling carbon-cycle concepts, terminology, and methods. Ecosystems, 9, 1041–1050. , , et al. (
- 2000) Annual carbon balance of Canada's forests during 1895–1996. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 14, 839–849. , , , (
- 2010) Can we reconcile atmospheric estimates of Northern terrestrial carbon sink with land-based accounting? Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, 2, 1–6. , , et al. (
- 2000) Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, 408, 184–187. , , , , (
- 2007) Estimating direct carbon emissions from Canadian wildland fires. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 16, 593–606. , , et al. (
- 2009) Forest floor fuel consumption and carbon emissions in Canadian boreal forest fires. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 39, 367–382. , , (
- 2007 Couplings between changes in the climate system and biogeochemistry. Chapter 7. In: Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (eds Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M et al.), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK. , , et al.
- Ecological Stratification Working Group (1996) A National Ecological Framework for Canada. Agriculture and Agri-Foods Canada, Research Branch, Centre for land and Biological Resources Research and Environment Canada, State of the Environment Directorate, Ottawa. 125 pp. and map at scale 1:7.5 million.
- Environment Canada (2010) National Inventory Report 1990–2008. Greenhouse Gas Sources and Sinks in Canada. The Government of Canada's Submission to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. http://www.ec.gc.ca/ges-ghg/ (accessed 30 November 2010).
- FAO (2006) Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress towards sustainable forest management. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. FAO Forestry Paper 147. Rome. 320 pp.
- 2006) Climate-carbon cycle feedback analysis: results from the C4MIP model intercomparison. Journal of Climate, 19, 3337–3353. , , et al. (
- 2000) Hotspot and NDVI differencing synergy (HANDS): a new technique for burned area mapping over boreal forest. Remote Sensing of Environment, 74, 362–376. , , (
- 2000) Carbon release from fires in the North American Boreal forest. In: Fire, Climate Change, and Carbon Cycling in the Boreal Forest (eds Kasischke ES, Stocks BJ), Springer-Verlag, New York. , , et al. (
- 2005) Evolution of carbon sinks in a changing climate. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 102, 11201–11206. , , et al. (
- GeoConnections (2004) Insect monitoring datasets for 1980–2000. Available at: http://geodiscover.cgdi.ca (accessed November 2004).
- 2005) Satellite-observed photosynthetic trends across boreal North America associated with climate and fire disturbance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science of the United States of America, 102, 13521–13525. , , , (
- 2002) Forest carbon sinks in the northern hemisphere. Ecological Applications, 12, 891–899. , , et al. (
- Government of Canada (2007) Canada's initial report under the Kyoto Protocol. Available at: http://unfccc.int/national_reports/initial_reports_under_the_kyoto_protocol/items/3765.php (accessed 21 April 2009).
- 2001) Net primary production and carbon allocation patterns of boreal forest ecosystems. Ecological Applications, 11, 1395–1411. , , , , , (
- IGBP Terrestrial Carbon Working Group (1998) The terrestrial carbon cycle: implications for the Kyoto Protocol. Science, 280, 1393–1394.
- IPCC (1997) Revised 1996 Guidelines for National Greenhouse Inventories. IPCC/OECD/IEA, Bracknell, UK.
- IPCC (2003) Good Practice Guidance for Land Use, Land-Use Change and Forestry (Penman J et al., ed.) Institute for Global Environmental Strategies, Hayama, (also available at http://www.ipcc-nggip.iges.or.jp).
- 2007) A joint atmosphere-ocean inversion for surface fluxes of carbon dioxide: 2. Regional results. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 21, GB1020. , , , , (
- 2000) The vertical distribution of soil organic carbon and its relation to climate and vegetation. Ecological Applications, 10, 423–436. , (
- 2008) Testing the assumptions of chronosequences in succession. Ecology Letters, 11, 419–431. , (
- 2006) Simulating effects of fire disturbance and climate change on boreal forest productivity and evapotranspiration. Science of the Total Environment, 362, 85–102. , , (
- 2006) Satellite remote sensing of terrestrial net primary production for the pan-arctic basin and Alaska. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11, 783–804. , , , (
- 2006) Operational-scale Carbon Budget Model of the Canadian Forest Sector (CBM-CFS3) Version 1.0: User's Guide. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. Northern Forestry Centre, Edmonton. , , , , , (
- 1999) A 70-Year retrospective analysis of carbon fluxes in the Canadian forest sector. Ecological Applications, 9, 526–547. , (
- 2006) Developing Canada's national forest carbon monitoring, accounting and reporting system to meet the reporting requirements of the Kyoto Protocol. Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, 11, 33–43. , (
- 2002) Forest carbon accounting at the operational scale. Forestry Chronicle, 78, 672–679. , , , (
- 2008a) Could increased boreal forest ecosystem productivity offset carbon losses from increased disturbance? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 363, 2261–2269. , , (
- 2008b) Mountain pine beetle and forest carbon feedback to climate change. Nature, 452, 987–990. , , et al. (
- 2008c) Risk of natural disturbances makes future contribution of Canada's forests to the global carbon cycle highly uncertain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 105, 1551–1555. , , et al. (
- 2009) CBM-CFS3: a model of carbon-dynamics in forestry and land-use change implementing IPCC standards. Ecological Modelling, 220, 480–504. , , et al. (
- 2002) Estimating net primary production of forests in the Canadian Prairie Provinces using an inventory-based carbon budget model. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 161–169. , , , (
- 2003) Temporal changes in forest net primary production and net ecosystem production in west central Canada associated with natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 33, 2340–2351. , , , (
- 2003) Increased carbon sink in temperate and boreal forests. Climatic Change, 61, 89–99. , , , , , (
- 2007) CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database. Global Change Biology, 13, 2509–2537. , , et al. (
- 2009) The European carbon balance: part 3: forests. Global Change Biology, 16, 1429–1450. , , et al. (
- 2007) The human footprint in the carbon cycle of temperate and boreal forests. Nature, 447, 848–850. , , et al. (
- 2001) Canada's plant hardiness zones revisited using modern climate interpolation techniques. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 81, 129–143. , , , (
- 2009) Forest fire impacts on carbon uptake, storage, and emission: the role of burn severity in the Eastern Cascades, Oregon. Ecosystems, 12, 1246–1267. , , , , (
- 2010) Implications of future disturbance regimes on the C balance of Canada's managed forest (2010–2100). Tellus B, 62, 719–728. , , , (
- 1997) The decomposition of forest products in landfills. International Biodeterioration and Biodegredation, 39, 145–158. , (
- 2001) A large carbon sink in the woody biomass of northern forests. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, 14784–14789. , , et al. (
- 2003) Temporal evolution of the European forest sector carbon sink from 1950 to 1999. Global Change Biology, 9, 152–160. , , , (
- 2003) Climate-driven increases in global terrestrial net primary production from 1982 to 1999. Science, 300, 1560–1563. , , et al. (
- NFI (2010) Canada's National Forest Inventory. Available at: https://nfi.nfis.org/index.php (accessed 30 August 2010).
- 2007) An atmospheric perspective on North American carbon dioxide exchange: carbontracker. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 104, 18925–18930. , , et al. (
- 2008) Net carbon dioxide losses of northern ecosystems in response to autumn warming. Nature, 451, 49–52. , , et al. (
- 2009) Spatiotemporal patterns of terrestrial carbon cycle during the 20th century. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 23, GB4026. , , , , , , (
- 2009) The influence of weather and fuel type on the fuel composition of the area burned by forest fires in Ontario, 1996–2006. Ecological Applications, 19, 1246–1252. , (
- 2006) Canada's Forest Inventory 2001. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service. Information Report BC-X-408. 128 pp. , (
- 2001) Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, 33551–33563. , , (
- 1997) Age-related decline in forest productivity: pattern and process. Advances in Ecological Research, 27, 213–261. , , (
- 2010) Meta-analysis of greenhouse gas displacement factors of wood product substitution. Environmental Science and Policy, 13, 104–114. , (
- 2002) Dynamics of Russian forests and the carbon budget in 1961–1998: as assessment based on long-term forest inventory data. Climatic Change, 50, 5–37. , (
- 1999) An ecological atlas of forest insect defoliation in Canada 1980–1996. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Fredericton, NB. Inf. Rep. M-X-206E. , (
- 2008) Carbon storage in forest products for the United States. Forest Products Journal, 58, 56–72. (
- 2007) Changing temporal patterns of forest carbon stores and net ecosystem carbon balance: the Stand to Landscape Transformation. Landscape Ecology, 22, 77–94. , , (
- 2007) Weak northern and strong tropical land carbon uptake from vertical profiles of atmospheric CO2. Science, 316, 1732–1735. , , et al. (
- 2002) Large forest fires in Canada, 1959–1997. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108, D1:FFR5, 1–12, doi: DOI: 10.1029/2001D000484. , , et al. (
- 2010) A comparison of alternative modelling approaches to evaluate the European forest carbon fluxes. Forest Ecology and Management, 260, 241–251. , , , , , , (
- 2000) Climate change and impacts of boreal forest insects. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 82, 283–294. , (
- 2005) Disturbing forest disturbances. Forestry Chronicle, 81, 662–668. , (
- 2010) Provincial-Level Projection of the Current Mountain Pine Beetle Outbreak: Update of the Infestation Projection Based on the 2009 Provincial Aerial Overview of Forest Health and the BCMPB Model (year 7). British Columbia Ministry of Forests and Range. Available at: http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hre/bcmpb/BCMPB.v7.BeetleProjection.Update.pdf (accessed 5 October 2010). (
- 2007) Carbon sequestration in the U.S. forest sector from 1990 to 2010. Forest Ecology and Management, 241, 14–27. , , (
- 2007) National circumstances in the international circumboreal community. Forestry Chronicle, 83, 539–556. , , et al. (
- 2003) Terrestrial net primary production estimates for 0.5 degree grid cells from field observations – a contribution to global biogeochemical modeling. Global Change Biology, 9, 46–64. , , (