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Effects of elevated ozone concentration on yield of four Chinese cultivars of winter wheat under fully open-air field conditions

Authors

  • XINKAI ZHU,

    1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
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    • 1Contributed equally to this work.

  • ZHAOZHONG FENG,

    1. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
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    • 1Contributed equally to this work.

  • TAOFANG SUN,

    1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
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  • XIAOCHENG LIU,

    1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
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  • HAOYE TANG,

    1. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
    2. State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
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  • JIANGUO ZHU,

    1. State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008, China
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  • WENSHAN GUO,

    1. Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
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  • KAZUHIKO KOBAYASHI

    1. Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8657, Japan
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Wenshan Guo, e-mail: guows@yzu.edu.cn; Kazuhiko Kobayashi, fax 81 3 5841 5186, e-mail: aclasman@mail.ecc.u-tokyo.ac.jp

Abstract

Four modern cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were grown under elevated ozone concentration (E-O3) in fully open-air field conditions in China for three consecutive growth seasons from 2007 to 2009. Results indicated that a mean 25% enhancement above the ambient ozone concentration (A-O3, 45.7 p.p.b.) significantly reduced the grain yield by 20% with significant variation in the range from 10% to 35% among the combinations of cultivar and season. The varietal difference in the yield response to E-O3 became nonsignificant when the anova was done by omitting one cultivar which showed unstable response to E-O3 among the seasons. The reduction of individual grain mass accounted mostly for the yield loss by E-O3, and showed significant difference between the cultivars. The response of relative yield to E-O3 was not significantly different from those reported in China, Europe and India on the basis of experiments in open-top chambers. Our results thus confirmed the rising threat of surface O3 on wheat production worldwide in the near future. Various countermeasures are urgently needed against the crop losses due to O3 such as mitigation of the increase in surface O3 with stricter pollution control, and enhancement of the wheat tolerance against O3 by breeding and management.

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