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Appendix S1. All significant individual regression lines within year and season.

Appendix S2. Both instant and lagged significant regression combinations (P<0.1) of δ13CR vs. the parameters including vpd, Gc, soil water content and Tsoil by the three distinct seasons. Upper, middle and low horizontal lines represent δ13C of soil organic matter, δ13C of foliage from Juniperus monosperma and δ13C of roots under Juniperus monosperma canopy, respectively (Table 2). We pooled all regressions by seasons and by years. r2 and P values for each driving parameter from pooled all regressions by seasons were presented next to ‘All’ in each legend. 1st ‘n’ number in the legend represents number of individual regression to be used for each year and 2nd total number of nightly δ13CR (or each driving variable) for each year.

Appendix S3. Monthly measurements of soil respiration were made during the growing seasons in 2005 and 2006. Soil respiration was measured at 12 randomly located collar locations within the 1.4 Ha plot with an open system (Li-Cor 6400, Lincoln Nebraska). The collars were placed into the soil 24 h in advance of measurements each month. There was no relationship between soil efflux and temperature, but there was a weak but significant relationship with soil water content (SWC): soil efflux=0.51+0.1×SWC, r2=0.37, P<0.001. We modeled soil efflux using this relationship and measured SWC (Fig. 2a). Over the five years, soil efflux (g C m-2 d-1) was 1.8, 2.1 and 2.1 during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon periods, respectively.

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