Primary Research Article

# Assessing the effects of nitrogen deposition and climate on carbon isotope discrimination and intrinsic water-use efficiency of angiosperm and conifer trees under rising CO_{2} conditions

Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2012

DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02757.x

© 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

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#### How to Cite

Leonardi, S., Gentilesca, T., Guerrieri, R., Ripullone, F., Magnani, F., Mencuccini, M., Noije, T. V. and Borghetti, M. (2012), Assessing the effects of nitrogen deposition and climate on carbon isotope discrimination and intrinsic water-use efficiency of angiosperm and conifer trees under rising CO_{2} conditions. Global Change Biology, 18: 2925–2944. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02757.x

#### Publication History

- Issue online: 6 AUG 2012
- Version of Record online: 10 JUL 2012
- Accepted manuscript online: 2 JUN 2012 06:31AM EST
- Manuscript Accepted: 29 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Revised: 28 MAY 2012
- Manuscript Received: 19 NOV 2011

- Abstract
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Filename | Format | Size | Description |
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gcb2757-sup-0001-TableS1.pdf | Word document | 47K | Table S1. Mean latitude of sites and age of trees (average of trees' ages sampled in different sites, as reported in the original articles) trough the period 1950–2003. |

gcb2757-sup-0002-supportingfile.pdf | Word document | 84K | S1supporting text. Materials and Methods. Assessing the effects of iWUE uncertainty on model results. |

gcb2757-sup-0003-FigS1.pdf | Word document | 91K | Figure S1. Variation in mean annual temperature (a), total annual precipitation (b) and numbers of wet days in a year (c) over the period 1950–2000 at the considered sites. |

gcb2757-sup-0004-FigS2.pdf | Word document | 864K | Figure S2. Correlation scatter plot of climatic and atmospheric variables in the data set; C_{a}: atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration; T_{m}: mean annual temperature; P: annual precipitation; D_{w}: number of wet days; N_{rate}: annual rate of N deposition; N_{cum}: cumulative N deposition; SO_{x}: annual rate of sulfur deposition; O_{3}: annual rate of tropospheric ozone deposition. |

gcb2757-sup-0005-FigS3.pdf | Word document | 85K | Figure S3. Variation in carbon isotope ratio (δ^{13}C) between 1850 and 2000. Each point represents the mean of all tree chronologies for a given year. In the upper panel (a) empty circles represent angiosperms, in the lower panel (b) filled circles represent conifers. Vertical bars are ± 1.96 standard error. The continuous line corresponds to a locally weighed polynomial regression. |

gcb2757-sup-0006-FigS4.pdf | Word document | 96K | Figure S4. Variation in carbon isotope discrimination (Δ^{13}C) as a function of rising level of CO_{2} over the industrial period (1850–2000) for angiosperm (a) and conifer (b) species. Lines represent the theoretical changes of Δ^{13}C to increased atmospheric concentrations of CO_{2} (C_{a}) according to the scenarios by Saurer et al. (2004): a totally passive response (scenario 1, dashed line), a constant ratio between intercellular (C_{i}) and atmospheric CO_{2} concentration (scenario 2, horizontal straight line), a constant C_{i} (scenario 3, dotted line). The continuous line corresponds to a locally weighed polynomial regression. Each point represents the mean of all tree chronologies of the corresponding species for a given year; vertical bars are ± 1.96 SE. |

gcb2757-sup-0007-FigS5.pdf | Word document | 317K | Figure S5. Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) results of mean annual temperature effects, panels (a) and (b), and total annual precipitation effects, panels (c) and (d), on intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). The y-axis values indicate the x-axis covariate effect on the iWUE deviation from the mean predicted by the model (continuous line). Symbols are partial residuals around predicted covariate effects; empty circles for angiosperms, panels (a) and (c); filled circles for conifers, panels (b) and (d). The shaded areas indicate the 95% confidence interval. The number on each y-axis caption is the effective degrees of freedom for the term being plotted. |

gcb2757-sup-0008-FigS6.pdf | Word document | 53K | Figure S6. Tropospheric ozone concentration (a)) and SO_{x} deposition (b)) in the period 1950–2000. Circles represent the average values for the considered sites (N = 53); vertical bars are ± 1.96 SE. |

gcb2757-sup-0009-FigS7.pdf | Word document | 326K | Figure S7. Generalized Additive Modeling (GAM) results of SO_{x} deposition effects, panels (a) and (b), and O_{3} deposition effects, panels (c) and (d), on intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE). Other covariates were mean annual temperature T_{m}, annual precipitation P, and atmospheric CO_{2} concentration C_{a}. The y-axis values indicate the x-axis covariate effect on the iWUE deviation from the mean predicted by the model (continuous line). Symbols are partial residuals around predicted covariate effects; empty circles for angiosperms, panels (a) and (c); filled circles for conifers, panels (b) and (d). The shaded areas indicate the 95% confidence interval. The number on each y-axis caption is the effective degrees of freedom for the term being plotted. |

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